Mathematics is one of the fundamental tools in analyzing and understanding astronomy. Astronomers use mathematics to do basic conversion, calculate brightness, density and temperature and improve the understanding of astronomical images. Most ancient astronomers views celestial objects on behalf of gods. They studied celestial objects with the hope of discovering the unknown of the world. In ancient China, astronomer is an occupation that works for the imperial family. They determine the calendar and divine by astrology. Astronomers are responsible to explain the reason of natural disaster and the health condition of imperial family. The duties of ancient Chinese astronomers make it to be a mysterious job. It is so sacred that there is a law that if an astronomer was commit to a crime, the judge should penalize him in the lighter way than usual in Qing Dynasty. It is a very special job that astronomers could be very useful in power struggle because natural disaster could be explained as the emperor or officials did not perform his duties and they have to be punished or even die. However, in the Chinese history, there are some extraordinary astronomers who are curious about the secrets of the universe. They use science to explore the laws of universe and the relationship between movement of stars and climate change with the purpose of giving the instruction for people to farming and avoid natural disasters. In this paper I would like to discuss how ancient Chinese Astronomers use advanced mathematical knowledge such as geometry and algebra to make great achievement in astronomical observation, astronomical instrument making and preparation of the calendar. Their achievement proved that astronomy and mathematics promoted each other.

Zu Chongzhi and his Daming Calendar and Nodal Month

Zu Chongzhi was a mathematician and astronomer. His achievement includes the establishing of Daming calendar, calculation of the number of overlaps...

...Top Five AncientChineseAchievements
When you think about ancient China’s achievements, you often get various different ideas, like fireworks, clocks, paper, pottery and crossbows. Well, I’m here to tell you that I believe that none of those above are the true top five achievements of ancient China in my version. I believe that the top five achievements ofancient china are printing, gunpowder, the mechanical clock, mass production and interchangeable parts. All five of these achievements were very important in their ancient age and even now, they show the same effects that shaped the world as it is.
Printing. Now, many people believe that the first printing methods were conducted by Johannes Gutenberg. But that is not true- to stand to fact. The first methods of printing were used by the Chinese, as if the message were to be produced repetitively with the same information, the characters would be notched into wood, but then later evolved to block printing, as seen in the Tang dynasty. The movable type could then be arranged into different scriptures of books, documents, and general housekeeping. Printing allowed us to record our thoughts and produce them over and over again. Printing evolved the world as it is today, even if it was not the most sophisticated.
Gunpowder. Now, gunpowder was created as...

...Interiano 1
!
Valeria Interiano
Mr. Tang
Astronomy - A
18 August 2014
!
Fascination for the Sky
Georg C. Lichtenberg, a German scientist, once said, “Astronomy is perhaps the science
whose discoveries owe least to chance, in which human understanding appears in its whole
magnitude, and through which man can best learn how small he is.” This shows how astronomy
is full of mysteries, which we have not yet discovered; therefore everyday we uncover something
even more fascinating about it. Even though “astronomy is one of the oldest
sciences” (Astronomy 2), we are not even close to reaching a conclusion about space, the sky,
the heavens and other aspects beyond Earth.
Since the 20th century, there have been thousands of theories that made up space and the
universe. Scientists like Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton and Edwin Hubble have helped clarify
some important facts about the universe, which have been expanded through the use of new
developments like the telescope and computer or analytical models, which help describe
astronomical objects and phenomenons. As new scientists arise, past theories like geocentricism
have been contradicted and replaced by more accurate and more fitting theories like
heliocentricism. This is how astronomy evolves into a more specific and known science, which
motivates mankind to research more and make sense about it in order to try to...

...Both Ancient Greek and AncientChinese are remarkably magnificent, a billion people believe the intellectual from Ancient Greece and Chinese traditional thoughts. The achievements of ancient Greek and Chinese from 2000 years or more before are remarkably different. Those civilizations were formed in different regions and climates with different ancestors. In some parts, of course, they have similarities. For example, both developed with empire. Ancient Greek's political approach shares some similarities with the Confucianism of China in a sense.
However, Ancient China and Ancient Greece were vastly dissimilar. The basic ideas of both civilizations that I learned in the class are those. In Ancient Greek, they emphasize on personal identities. AncientChinese emphasize on collective identities. In political view, China built a strongly centralized bureaucratic system which is strongly supported by hierarchy and obedience. In contrast, Ancient Greece valued on participation, including the idea of citizenship. Here I would like to make it clear that what are the differences between those in specific areas, like science or medicine or so on. In addition what are the causes of these differences.
Geoffrey Lloyd and Nathan Sivin mentioned that Greek was not required to...

...Astronomy
Kerry Boettcher 6th Grade – Zoller
Overview
Children are enchanted by the twinkling stars in their night sky. Often one of the first songs we teach them, and that they then love to sing over and over, is "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star." This early connection between the music and words of this familiar old song and the actual lights above them is the beginning of understanding the vastness of our universe. These introductory conversations about the night sky should eventually lead them to beginning astronomy studies.
This lesson plan is designed to introduce your student or students to a basic beginning understanding of what astronomy is and why it is an important and interesting science to study. It is appropriate for grade levels 3-8, depending upon prior knowledge and interest level of student.
Lesson Plan Purpose: Introduction to Astronomy
The objective of this science lesson plan is to introduce the concepts of space, our solar system, galaxies and other celestial objects. Students will learn about the importance of space technology and space education. Students will use various space related activities to explore the basic concepts and to demonstrate their acquired knowledge. Students will use a variety of text and online resources to explore the subject matter presented throughout this lesson plan....

...
Stephanie Sanchez Figueroa
Instructor: Vincent Tobin
Astronomy 100
November 29, 2014
My Astronomy Interview
Astronomy is the branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole. The topics that I learned in my astronomy class include the sun and other stars, solar system, stellar evolution, galaxies, and the universe itself. Most of the topics were very interesting to me, because I learned a lot about the universe I live in. Although, I now have some knowledge about the universe, there are a lot of people who know a little to nothing about the universe. The three people I decided to interview to report their knowledge and reaction about the universe were my brother who’s 18, my mom, and my boyfriend. I decided to ask them what they knew about Saturn, which are the four terrestrial planets? How did our galaxy form? And what is a black hole?
To begin, I interviewed my brother first. He has never been a fan of astronomy, so I didn’t expect him to know anything. When I asked him what he knew about Saturn he said “Oh that’s the planet with the rings” that’s pretty much all he knew about it. When I told him that the rings were not solid, but that they were made up of chunks of ice and rock, he was very surprised. He had no idea what the terrestrial planets were. When I asked him how did our galaxy form? He seemed a little confused and said, “I don’t...

...GCSE Astronomy Topic 1 Key Facts The Earth Eratosthenes first measured the circumference of the Earth accurately. He measured the altitude of the Sun North of a place where the Sun was at the zenith at exactly the same time. Knowing the distance and the angle one can work out the circumference. The Earth is a slightly flattened sphere with average diameter 13,000km The Earth takes 23 hours 56 minutes to rotate. This is a sidereal day. The Earth is the only known planet with liquid water and a range of temperatures that could support life. Poles – the points that the axis of rotation of the Earth passes through Equator – a circle around the middle of the Earth at equal distances from each pole. Zenith – the point directly above you in the sky Horizon – an imaginary line where the land meets the sky Latitude – the angle of a location North or South of the equator Meridian – an imaginary circle that passes through both poles. The prime meridian goes through Greenwich Longitude – the angle of a location East or West of the prime meridian
The Atmosphere The sky is blue because blue light from the Sun is scattered more than bigger wavelengths so appears to come from all directions Most of the atmosphere is Nitrogen. The 21% oxygen and water vapour it contains is important for human survival. Visible light, microwaves and some radio waves can pass through the atmosphere Infra red, ultra violet and x rays are mostly absorbed so observatories tend to...

...The Ancient Greek culture has had such an impact on the world that no matter
where you look you're sure to find something Greek about it. Out of all the
areas that the Greek culture is famous for there are two that tend to exert
themselves into our own culture even today. That would be their Science and
Astronomy fields.
If one were to look up in a library books about ancient Greek science and astronomy
they would have a mountain of books to sift through. There seem to be so many
individuals who have contributed towards the great scientific and astronomic
revelations that the list of names seems to go on and on. Many of the theories
that were structured in the ancient Greek culture are still put to use today.
The goal of this paper is to point out and describe just a few ancient Greek
individuals and their works that whom without their work we might never have
advanced as far and as fast as we have technologically or mentally.
Sometimes described as the first pure mathematician, Pythagoras of Samos, was
a very important developer of modern mathematics. Unfortunately there is, in
comparison, little known about his and his followers' achievements for they
worked in a secret society where they kept strictly to themselves.
An odd note about the details of Pythagoras's life is that the information
that is written about him in early...

...DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by integers. More formally, discrete mathematics has been characterized as the branch of mathematics dealing with countable sets (sets that have the same cardinality as subsets of the integers, including rational numbers but not real numbers). However, there is no exact, universally agreed, definition of the term "discrete mathematics." Indeed, discrete mathematics is described less by what is included than by what is excluded: continuously varying quantities and related notions.
The set of objects studied in discrete mathematics can be finite or infinite. The term finite mathematics is sometimes applied to parts of the field of discrete mathematics that deals with finite sets, particularly those areas relevant to business.
Research in discrete mathematics increased in the...

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