The cognition and utilization of the world makes human life have become more convenient and comfortable, learning that can be defined as the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge is the key term to the development and progress of individuals, even the whole society. Because of the different environment, the learning theory or method is not unique. Some theories emphasis on individual learning and some tend to learn in groups. Three learning methods – self-efficacy, situating learning and expansive theory are compared from three aspects of level and relationship, transformation, and strength and weakness.
Comparing in level and relationship
Understanding of the level and relationship of the learning theories can help us to better understand the purpose and significance of each method. Self-efficacy beliefs have been found to be sensitive to subtle changes in students’ performance context, to interact with self-regulated learning processes, and to mediate students’ academic achievement. According to the Zimmerman (2000), the level of self-efficacy refers to its dependence on the difficulty of a particular task. Self-efficacy related to three concepts of outcome expectations, self-concept, and perceived control. Situating learning can be interpreted that one person is imperceptibly influenced by people who around him or her in a specific environment. The newcomers obtain knowledge and related skills and finally convert into oldtimer though the language or behavior shown by senior guidance. Expansive learning is a little bit similar with situated learning, because both of them are group study and need communication among members. However, contradictions, gaps and uncoordinated issues appear, which needs the establishment of a new model to solve the problems, due to the different objects, back ground and tools of different group. Comparing in knowledge transfer process
The topic is moving to learning methods. Understanding how the knowledge and skills transform from books or experienced people to a new learner is the most important, as it help us to master the knowledge and applied in practical. The topic is moving to learning methods. Understanding how the knowledge and skills transform from books or experienced people to a new learner is the most important, as it help us to master the knowledge and applied in practical. Firstly, based on Zimmerman (2000), self-efficacy theory includes several elements. Outcomes expectancies can be seen as a motivation to individuals, because a good outcome will arouse interest of learners, and become a motivation to help learners to work harder to achieve the goal of learning. Self-concept contains two aspects: self-evaluation and self-knowledge. Self-evaluation is the overall view of ourselves - Who am I? What a kind of person I am? How about my ability? Do I have the courage to face the changes and challenges? What are my strengths? What are my weaknesses and so on? Every day we constantly review the various aspects of our own ability to evaluate ourselves, then, self concept will be gradually formed. Self-knowledge is that individuals truly understand what a kind of person they are, but also accept their strengths and weaknesses, try to change some things that can be changed (such as bad life habits), accept their limitations, stand up again from failure, be neither overbearing nor servile. Self-efficacy beliefs also are influenced by motivation such as choice of activities, level of effort persistence, and emotional reactions. Secondly, situating learning has two kinds of participation. Legitimate peripheral participation is that learning in a specific environment which usually involves no external tests and little praise or blame. The organization of space and coordination are essential factors for the process of learning. Newcomers are as recipients, and oldtimers then are as transmitters of knowledge. Newcomers...