COLLEGE OF MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE
Rodolfo N. Pelaez Boulevard, Kauswagan, Cagayan de Oro City
An Organic Chemistry Project About
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats in
Vegetable Oils, Margarines, and Peanut Butters
Submitted by : Zedrik O. Ortiz
Submitted to : Dr. Luzviminda H. Saliga
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Saturated fat is a fatty acid that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully saturated with hydrogen atoms. There are many kinds of naturally occurring saturated fatty acids, which differ mainly in number of carbon atoms, from 3 carbons (propionic acid) to 36 (hexatriacontanoic acid).
Unsaturated fat, however, is a fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond. Where double bonds are formed, hydrogen atoms are eliminated. Thus, a saturated fat has no double bonds, has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons, and therefore is saturated with hydrogen atoms.
* Monounsaturated fat is a fatty acid that has one double bond in the fatty acid chain and all of the remainder of the carbon atoms in the chain are single-bonded.
* Polyunsaturated fat is a fatty acid in which the fatty acid part of the ester is polyunsaturated.
Trans fat is the common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer fatty acid. Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond, trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated but never saturated.
Hydrogenation, to treat with hydrogen, also a form of chemical reduction, is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst. The process is commonly employed to reduce or saturate organic compounds. Hydrogenation typically constitutes the addition of pairs of hydrogen atoms to a molecule, generally an alkene. Catalysts are required for the reaction to be usable; non-catalytic hydrogenation takes place only at very high temperatures. Hydrogen adds to double and triple bonds in hydrocarbons. In food industry, the largest scale application of hydrogenation is for the processing of vegetable oils. Typical vegetable oils are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Their partial hydrogenation reduces most, but not all, of these carbon-carbon double bonds. The degree of hydrogenation is controlled by restricting the amount of hydrogen, reaction temperature, time, and catalysts.
QUESTIONS TO ANSWER
1. What term in the label tells you that the compound contains double bonds ?
“Unsaturated fat” is the term in the label that tells us that the compound contains double bonds.
2. A label on a bottle of canola oil lists saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats. What do these terms tell you about this type of bonding in fats ?
The term “saturated fat” tells us that compound which is the oil contains single bonds, that is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully saturated with hydrogen atoms. The term “monounsaturated fat” tells us that the oil has one double bond in the fatty acid chain and all of the remainder of the carbon atoms in the chain are single-bonded. The term “polyunsaturated fat” tells us that the oil has a fatty acid in which the fatty acid part of the ester is polyunsaturated.
3. A peanut butter label states that it contains partially hydrogenated vegetable oil or completely hydrogenated vegetable oil. What does this tell you about the type of reaction that took place in preparing the peanut butter ?
Hydrogenation is the chemical process by which liquid vegetable oil is turned into solid fat. Partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil indicates that naturally occurring unsaturated...