America: A Huge Social Experiment

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America – the huge “Social Experiment?”
Early Exploration of the Americas
➢ The Native Americans – 40,000 BC
➢ Influence of some early explorers: Leif Erickson (1000), Marco Polo (1295), Columbus (1492), Amerigo Vespucci (1507) ➢ The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Factors for European Exploration
➢ Desire for East Asian products & a trade route (Northwest Passage) ➢ Religious Competition
➢ Improved Science & Technology
➢ The “Renaissance Spirit”
What factors spurred British Colonization?
➢ Peace with Spain & Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) ➢ Population Growth (No more Black Plague)
➢ Unemployment, Adventure & Religious Freedom
➢ The Joint-Stock Company
➢ The Headright System, Patroonships, Indentured Servants (Bacon’s Rebellion - 1676) What was the impact of contact on Natives & for Europeans?
➢ Not so good for the Natives…Actually really bad.
▪ Numbers – Why do estimates vary?
➢ Europeans – global empires, the rise of capitalism & dietary improvement The Early British Colonies
➢ (The ‘Lost’) Roanoke Island (1584) & Jamestown (1607) Settlements ▪ Sir Walter Raleigh, John Smith, John Rolfe, Pocahontas, Virginia Dare SIMILARITIES AMONG THE 13 COLONIES: Primarily English, Self-Governing (not necessarily Democratic), Educational opportunities for males, Advantages for economic & social self-development DIFFERENCES AMONG THE 13 COLONIES:

New England: (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire) Puritan-dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on civic participation, more industry, less available farmland ➢ Massachusetts – The Massachusetts Bay Colony [MBC] (1629) – Puritans & John Winthrop’s “City upon a hill” ▪ Plymouth Colony (1620) – Later incorporated into MBC – Puritans (Pilgrims), William Bradford/Miles Standish, Mayflower Compact ➢ Connecticut – (1636) – Thomas Hooker & the Fundamental Orders ➢ New Hampshire (1679) – Royal colony separated from Massachusetts ➢ Rhode Island (1644) – Most liberal in New England, founded by Roger Williams

Middle Colonies: (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware) Ethnically diverse, (more) religiously tolerant & democratic - Quaker influence, farming/lumbering, ship building, shipping & trade, fur trapping ➢ New York (1623) – (Originally New Netherlands) Peter Minuit, Peter Stuyvesant & the Dutch (NYC was New Amsterdam) ➢ New Jersey (1664) – Quaker settlement

➢ Pennsylvania (1681) – William Penn as a haven for Quakers ➢ Delaware (1703) – Remained under the governor of Pennsylvania until the American Revolution

Southern Colonies: (Maryland, Virginia, N.Carolina, S.Carolina, Georgia) Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population, expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant) ➢ Maryland (1632) – By Lord Baltimore (Sir George Calvert) as a safe haven for Catholics; The (Maryland) Act of Toleration (1649) ➢ North Carolina (1670/1710) – A haven for poor whites & religious dissenters from Virginia. Most democratic & liberal southern colony. ➢ South Carolina (1670) – Many plantations & aristocrats. Became center of the slave trade. ➢ Georgia (1733) – Last of the 13 colonies, founded by James Oglethorpe. A buffer between the 12 colonies & Spanish Florida, and a refuge for debtors & convicts.

Founding the Colonies – How were they born?
➢ Joint-Stock Colonies: Investors would pool capital to finance settlements in the new world. They were expected to produce revenue (like a corporation) & were expected to be temporary. (Virginia & Massachusetts Bay) ➢ Royal Colonies: Colonies under the control of the crown. Governors would be appointed by the crown. (Most of the Royal Colonies ended up becoming royal colonies.) (VA, NH, NC, SC, NY, NJ, GA) ➢ Proprietary Colonies: Led by proprietors who themselves chose governors. (MD, PA, DE) ➢ Charter...
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