PHIL 241: Theoretical Ethics FALL 2012
Final Examination [Fall 2012]
1. “There is no possibility of thinking of anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be regarded as good without qualification, except a good will.” [AK393] What is the argument that Kant introduces with these words? Comment on the suggestion made in the content of the argument that neither prudence nor utility can comprise a good without qualification.
Philosophy is divided into three categories. First, physics in which it focuses on the study of the physical world. Second, ethics in which it is the study of morals. Thirdly, logic in which is the study of logical principles. These fields may either relate on our own experiences or it can relate to moral or physical experience. In the book, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant introduces many arguments in which are intended to outline and define a priori basis of morality. Like all great philosophers, Kant arguments have been analyzed and questioned which have provoked a wide range of responses, positive and negative. Kant believed that our motives are controlled by reason, and he proves this as he writes, “There is no possibility of thinking of anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be regarded as good without qualification, except a good will” in this quote Kant points out that a person’s imperfect duty to oneself is to cultivate activities and use them wisely and help others who do not possess this activities achieve the same. Kant believes that acts are seen as good if one’s actions are done from the motive of duty.
2. Present Kant’s analysis of the four types of actions in which human beings may engage. Why does Kant give his analysis as a contrast between ‘inclinations’ and ‘duty’? What is the point of this analysis and what model of motivation does he think that his analysis supports?