Prior to 9/11, the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reported 10 clearly defined categories of causes; Unfamiliarity, Complex airspace, Overlying airspace, High workloads, Trusting technology too much, Confusion over landmarks, Problems getting clearances, Cutting it too Close, and finally, "I didn't realize "
Of the causes identified, one was pilots being unfamiliar with the airspace boundaries, not being able to pick out local landmarks based on a section chart, understanding urban settings, strict noise abatement procedures and identifying different airspace classes. When you add in rapid-fire communications, high traffic flows and the complexity of a new patch of airspace, the challenges become much greater. The article suggests pilots being better prepared may mitigate these obstacles. This entails making sure the charts have proper scaling to signify key landmarks. These charts must then be studied. Prior to the flight, pilots were recommended to contact local pilots and flight instructors to obtain a sound understanding on normal clearances and potential problems.
When flying in complex airspace, the potential for flying into restricted airspace increases. Filing IFR for flight operations is an easier and safer option.
Problems arise where adjacent airspace conflicts. Some military areas or restricted areas butt extremely close to an airport, even Class B, C, or D airports. In this case, the pilot should contact air traffic control before operating. Also, the local community can contact the FAA to establish convenient communication procedures, which would allow pilots to contact the controlling agency while on the runway to obtain a clearance. The article also suggests publishing the frequencies in the...