Aggression and Gender Diversification

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Glion Institute of Higher Education

Aggression and Gender Diversification
Social and Developmental Psychology
Maria Zubova

Table of Contents

Introduction2
General understanding of aggression3
Images of men and women in media4
Aggression as a chemical process in men and women5
Aggression as a symptom7
Conclusion11
List of references12
Appendixes15

Introduction
There has been a significant development in fields of gender diversification for the past years due to the up-to-date research, modern scientific studies, new psychological experiments, tests, technological innovations etc. We have much more information about the processes of our body. With the help of magnetic resonance images, brain scanning, latest blood analysis we can see how the brain works and which particular chemical reactions cause certain behavior. Finally there have been fundamental progresses in studies of hormones which have a huge impact on the human behavior and emotional reactions. In this essay I am going to cover one of these reactions – aggression. The research will show different sides of aggression in terms of chemical processes and ejection of hormones. We will also have a look at the aggression from a prospective of a disease symptom. The main issues of the essay to see how the aggression differs or coincides depending on a gender, what are the positive and negative causes of it and find out if we can control it or not.

General understanding of aggression
In order to become familiar with aggression as a social phenomenon it is important to understand its nature. The significant feature is that aggression may cause harm depending on a situation. In fact it is not the damage that defines aggression but the intension of the action itself. Let’s imagine an aggressive drunk man who is trying to punch somebody. The other person manages to turn aside from the attack and there is no damage. Still the act of aggression occurred. On the other side if somebody is accidentally wounded there is no sign of aggression because there is no intention behind the action. (Aronson, Wilson & Akert, 2010) Violence and aggression are major cause for death and injuries. Therefore it costs a fortune for government to form the institutions to handle social health issues. Through years the neurobiological side of anger and rage has been studied. Consequently there are several pharmacological cure policies that have been used and will probably extend in future. Such a success has been reached through experiments on cats and rodents. These studies covered neural mechanisms in order to learn how to govern and control aggression. (Siegel, Bhatt, Bhatt & Zalcman, 2007) The main brain areas which are responsible for aggression are hypothalamus and central gray; other areas have modulating role, e.g. amygdala and septal area. Pharmacological surveys defined that one of the most successful ways to handle violence is utilizing serotonergic mixture. Antipsychotic, anti-epileptic and dopaminergic drugs are also used in this field of treatment. Further neurobiological studies will definitely provide more pharmacological treatment to have a greater control of aggression. (Siegel, Bhatt, Bhatt & Zalcman, 2007) This expression of that phenomenon may emerge in many forms. For example physical aggression between twins in the early age results in kicking, biting, threatening and other physical attacks. (Dionne, Tremblay, Boivin, Laplante & Perusse, 2003) Though there are two types that have been defined – hostile and instrumental aggression. (Berkowitz, 1993) Here are the main definitions given by Berkowitz “Hostile aggression is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain and injury. In instrumental aggression there is an intention to hurt the other person, but the hurting takes place as a means to some goal other than causing pain.“ (1993) Domestic abuse is one of a well-known...
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