Race, Racial Solidarity, and Racial Integration
Since the days of reconstruction, the debate over how African-Americans could best obtain equality in the United States has raged on from generation to generation. Blacks have been subjected to racial inequalities in America before America even really existed. And even when blacks were finally "free" after the Civil War, social injustices continued throughout American history, and still exist today. There have been many heated debates throughout the short history of the United States in regards to the best possible course of action for the social progress of black people, but there has never been a consensus on what that course of action is among the country or among blacks themselves. When it comes down to it, racial integration and racial solidarity were (and still are) the basic ideologies that many black political and community leaders argue about to shape social policy and reform in the United States. The American government has followed the idea that forced integration is the best means of success for the African-American population, but is this truly the best way to truly achieve equality? For some people, the answer appears to be yes, but there are many others who would disagree. In this paper, I examine both ideas of racial integration and racial solidarity from a historical perspective and the effects of these ideologies on society as a whole.
In order to truly conceptualize the idea of social progress for blacks, one must first understand what social progress really is in itself. Social progress is exactly how it sounds. It is the process in which societies or individuals become better. According to Lars Orsberg, "social progress (in a liberal society) must be measured in the "enabling" sense that a society progresses when it enables more of its citizens to achieve the kind of life they personally value." Traces of the idea of social progress can be found back during the Enlightenment period in Europe. During this period, social commentators and philosophers began to realize that the people could actually change society and change their way of life because they are the ones who made their own society, not the gods. This led to the idea that human beings could make choices and that people could independently make their own lives using their own judgment. Because of the ideas of human freedom and people controlling what happened in history emerged (whether it be evolutionary or revolutionary), real human progression and regression could then be seen occurring in history. This is the basic idea where social progress comes from, but times change and the idea of social progress becomes more complex when you include factors such as race, gender, and class status. Today, many blacks (and other minority groups) face a much more arduous road of social progression. Social inequalities and injustices have severely hindered the social progress of African-Americans in the U.S. for well over two-hundred years, but history tells a story of the attempts and movements to help overcome these hindrances.
Everyone knows that slavery occurred and how terrible and inhumane of an institution it was. However, in America, the slavery institution's ugly head is still somewhat embedded in our culture. It is the main historical aspect that affects race relations in America today. Slavery actually was the institution that brought about the need for the concept of race: "Racial slavery did not happen all at once. Slowly, involuntary servitude in America became the province of black Africans and slowly that involuntary servitude evolved into full-scale slavery. In the process, not only did slavery itself have to be justified, but racial slavery had to be justified. In order to do this, Europeans and European-Americans had to invent a new concept: race" (Hooker 1996).
The modern concept of race was promoted by rich Europeans in the 17th...