Acculturation, Biculturism and Marginalization: How Ethnic Identity Mediates Acculturation Stress Depending on Different Acculturation Attitudes of Family Related Migrants

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Acculturation, biculturism and marginalization:
how ethnic identity mediates acculturation stress depending on different acculturation attitudes of family related migrants

Student: Flora June Lee

Student ID: N 7316429

Unit: PYB 404 Issues in social developmental psychology

Assignment: Literature Review

Lecturer: Mariann Martsin

Due Date: 06/05/13

Word Count: 3,544

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* Ross-Sheriff (2011) commented that international migration patterns have * changed as a consequence of broad social, political, economic, and environmental * trends and explained the causes of the driving forces were including war, * globalization, urbanization, and changing cultural norms regarding social roles and * responsibilities (Ross-Sheriff, 2011). With these complex trends of migration * patterns, Van Hear (2010) viewed migration as a process which was an integral part * of broader social transformations, but which also had its own internal dynamics with * other factors related to the migrating process, shaping social transformation in their * own way. Migration was also linked in complex ways to class, gender, generation, * ethnicity and other social factors, which were embodied in positions in home and host * communities, and in work and domestic relationships, all of which might be * transformed in the course of the migratory process (Van Hear, 2010).

To understand this complex process of migration, especially under changing circumstances of one culture to another, it might be useful to build conceptual tools for understanding these transitory processes in migration studies and in social science more widely (Van hear, 2010). They also include mediating agents and transitions that need also to be accounted for, as well as intersections among class, gender, generation, ethnicity and other social ruptures as well as the main driving forces of migration (Van Hear, 2010).Of course there were other important concepts such as relations between time and space, between dynamics or processes and outcomes, and between structure and agency that needed to get attention (Van Hear, 2010). However, it is impossible to discuss all different theoretical concepts involved in different types of migration process in the current limited study. Rather, this study tried to focus on psychological impacts such as ethnic identity and self-esteem on migration through acculturation processes particularly on family- related migration because different patterns of migration produced different communities and resulted in producing different migrant identities including varying levels of psychological distress (Jones, 2008).

Further, few empirical studies have focused on migrant adults populations.

Most migrants identification related literatures tended to relate more for adolescents

or young children because identity formation might be particularly challenging in this

cohort, especially when the values and beliefs of their natal culture differed

significantly from those of the host society (Sodowsky, Kwan, & Pannu, 1995; as

cited in Farver, Narang, & Bhadha, 2002). Therefore, this study focused on

ethnic identity and self-identification issues of adult migrants’ themselves within a

family structure according to different theoretical models relevant to adaptation of

new cultures, because family was the basic instrument in the society (Nesdale,

Rooney, & Smith, 1997).

In fact, most cultural acquisition theories developed and evolved in 1990s

when international migration became a key issue in international politics at the

beginning of 1990s. As Castle (2002) argued that migration, development and

international relations were closely connected as migration...
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