13th Century Art History Notes

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The Thirteenth Century
Early 14th Century and late 16th Century
New kind of collaboration between artists and patrons, religious civic institutions and between the perceived relationship of past to present. •Emphasis on the potential of the human being, power of a liberal classical education to produce a well rounded individual. •Rivalry between Siena and Florence

Guilds associations of workers that set standards of work and prices and protected the rights of workers and their families. •Traces of the Classical tradition began to re-appear in Rome in the 12th and 13th century and oClassical Greece artists had striven for idealized but naturalistic three dimentional human for and symmetry Vasari’s Life and the “Framing” of the Renaissance

Mannersit artist and architect Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) constructed the framework for Renaissance art •Biographies of most artists Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects oInfancy, Adolecence and Maturity 14th, 15th and 16th Century oPerfect maturity of the arts embodied by Michelangelo

oItalo-centic
Saw Byzantine art as negative (emotion) as well as French Gothic style

Cimabue
Marker the end of the byzantine style
Probably from Florence
His style indicates that he had absorbed elements of Classical plasticity and a late medieval tendency to express emotion through surface patterns of rich color and gold leaf as well as through content •Crucifix 1275

oIn showing the dead Christ, Cimabue was in tune with his recent iconographic developments, which departed from the previously prevailing images of living Christ on the Cross oChristus Patiens is the “suffering Christ”

oElongated, body composed of a graceful “S” shaped characterized of the Byzantine forms. Stylized pattern of the anatomy oCurvilinear rhythms evident in the gold threading of Christs drapery oRichness of the color by the use of the tempera

oFormal geometric unit
oItaly crucifixes of this type were often suspended over an altar and related to the liturgy performed there •Enthroned Maddona and Child 1285
oHer role as the Heavenly Queen is a metaphor for the stairway to heaven oChrist is the embodiedment of the miraculous Christian “baby king” childlike in size but adults in his proportions, comportment, and intelligence. •Giotto

Crucifix
oHe slumps forwards and his arms are stretched thin by the natural pull of gravity oAnatomical structure of his body is organically rendered ( no surface styleation) oGiotto’s naturalism, his attention to the lways of gravity, and the complex layers of meaning mark a major step towards the Renaissance style oViewers identified emotionally and physically

Enthroned Madonna
oSpace is more purely cubic, with the throne and figures firmly set on horizontal surfaces. oThe throne does not rise as that of Cimabue and the angles seem to occupy natural space oBoth the throne and figures are weightly and seem to objey the laws of gravity Development of the Gothic Style in Italy and France and the Ars Nova In Flanders •Sienna produced a large group of painters in the first half of the 14th century •Duccio’s Maesta

oLargest altar piece ever created
oMade for the high altar piece of siena cathedral
oLiterally means “majesty”
oUnusually decorated with narrative panels on the back and on the front oLocated bellow the dome of the cathedral
As a result it was visible on all sides
oMary’s central role in Sienna is reflected in the iconography of Duccip’s altarpiece. She dominates the front panel, at once the Queen of Heaven and of earth. oGiotto’s counterpart in Florence is Duccio’s in Sienna oDuccio attempts to convey 3D space.

oPeople of Sienna viewed Marry as their protector (Sienna won against Florence) oVery similar to the style of Cimbue, in the sense that it was Byzantine, it was playing a tribute to the Sienna style oPolitical significance: Gothic style,...
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