Red Scare 1919:
I. Mass hysteria
II. Why: unrealistic irrational fear.
A. Expectations up and down:
1. Prosperity: People are doubling income (1915 income: 408$ yr to 1920 835$ year) 2. Post war recession
B. Super patriotism/Slackers (you’re a slacker if not a super patriot) 1. Committee for Public Relations (C.P.I.) (Creel Committee) - Read propaganda papers, pushed conformity and supported Boy Scouts for war. 2. Espionage and sedition acts
A. Clear and present danger: speech that presents this is not protected. (cant yell fire in a theatre as a joke when there is no fire. Not protected by amendment). 3. Radicals:
A. Industrial workers of the World (IWW): nicknamed Wobblies. Loudmouth aggressive workers, and when on strike did it vigorously to prove their point. Opposed WWI. Persecuted, charged with violating sedition acts, shut down and some thrown in jail.
C. 1919 Incidents (convinced people that there are threats everywhere)
1. Bombs (mail bombs, one goes off in A. Mitchell Palmers yard so he constructed the Palmer Raids. (People that went on strikes considered radicals).
A. Boston police: (19 police got fired for joining AFL so rest of boston police walked off the job) Coolidge convinced them they could not strike and had to go back to work, and most did.
B. Steel: went on strike for higher wages, and better working conditions.
C. Coal: went on strike for higher wages.
4. Centralia Massacre 11/11/19
* Wobblies thought they were going to be attacked so they opened fire on a parade that was taking place for Armistice Day. Wobblies kill a few men, all Wobblies come out except for Wesley Everest who came out of the building firing at police killing one and he was eventually killed. (He was thought to be a crazy radical and a hero by some)
III. Palmer Raids, Dec. 1919, Jan. 1920
- Thousands of immigrants are rounded up in cities from coast to coast, deported back to their home country or charged with a crime for being suspicious. Some 6-7,000 was rounded up in total. None of these people were charged with a crime when they were picked up, thus making it biggest violation of civil liberties in U.S.
IV. End of Scare: May of 1920 the fear of radicals comes to an end. After WWI conformity begins and we lose a lot of cultural diversity.
- Palmer (attorney general) creates Anti-Radical Division and appointed Edgar Hoover to lead it and go after radicals. - John L. Lewis:
- Harding died in 1923, buried in hometown of Ohio. Had poor judgment of character, but never accused of accepting bribes. His administration collapsed bc of scandals. Harding got sick in Seattle, but a book was written about how his wife poisoned him. Harding:
I. Teapot dome
II. Lucid Press
A. Gaston means, “ The Death of Harding”
B. Nam Britton, The Presidents Life – She claimed to be The presidents mistress and have sexual encounters in the White House Calvin Coolidge: - became president after Harding died. He was a Puritan, serious individual, and gained nickname “Silent Cal” for being very quiet and not talking much. Famous quote of his “They cant hang you for what you don’t say”. He was thought to be mean spirited (Laughed at others discomfort and misfortune). His wife was Grace Goodhue (she taught the deaf & blind), very friendly and positive influence on Coolidge and contributed to his success. Happy as V.P. bc he didn’t have to do much. I. Silent Cal
B. Gov. > V.P. > President
C. Cleans house – cleaned out the white house, trying to get rid of the corrupt people. Brought in Harlen Stone to bring back pride in W.H.. D. Pro Business and Capitalism – He kept the concept of pro business, was an old form of Capitalism. II. 1924 election –
A. Democratic disarray – Took 100 ballots to elect representative. John Davis was Democrat’s choice. Republicans won. B....