State Principles and Policies
government by representation Government by representation is the essence of a republican government. As sovereignty resides in the people, it is the people that establishes the government that governs them. Hence, sovereignty is exercised in two ways: directly and indirectly. Indirectly, sovereignty is exercised through the elected representatives or commonly called public officials. These officials are accountable to the people. Their acts are considered acts of the people as long as they are done within the prescribed limits of the delegated power/s given to them.
How about DIRECT exercise of sovereignty? This can be shown through the electoral process or suffrage. Popular will in choosing who will be our representatives displays the exercise of the people's sovereignty.
Republican government - democratic government by representatives chosen by the people at large,,hence the phrase "government by representation"
proposed parliamentary federal form - This can be done through charter change
In parliamentary form of government, the legislative and executive will form one body parliament. It will then become unicameral instead of bicameral. The people will still have the power to elect who will represent them and become members of the parliament. Although there will still be a president, he or she will only have ceremonial powers. The one who will be creating government ministries and appointing ministers would be the Prime Minister who is elected by the members of the parliament and also coming from or among the said members of the parliament. An erring prime minister can be removed by no-confidence vote by the members of the parliament. There is no need to go through the process of impeachment like in our present form of government.
To achieve a parliamentary federal form, once transformed to parliamentary, what is needed is to grant full autonomy to different regions or places in our country. This is where federalism comes in. There will now be federated regions or places.
policy on war
The Philippines renounces war in accordance with the principle in the charter of the UN to "refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state." What we renounce here is "aggressive" war and not "defensive" war because of our right to self-preservation. The Philippines abide to the policy of non-interference and peaceful settlement of international disputes.
supremacy of civilian authority
This is more of a reaction to what happened prior to the 1987 Constitution wherein the military has been utilized by former President Marcos in what other people see as persecution of members of the society during martial law. This supremacy of civilian authority is seen from the fact that the commander-in-chief of the military is the President, a citizen.
role of the AFP -Sec. 3 defines the role of the AFP as the "protector of the people and the state" and must "secure the sovereignty of the state and the integrity of the national territory"
duty of the government - To serve and protect the people.
separation of church and state
Article III Sec. 5: "No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights."
Article VI Sec. 29(2) "No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to any...
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