LECTURE EXAM 3
Functions and Divisions of the Nervous System
List the basic functions of the nervous system.
Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system.
Histology of Nervous Tissue
List the types of neuroglia and cite their functions.
Define neuron, describe its important structural components, and relate each to a functional role.
Differentiate between a nerve and a tract, and between a nucleus and a ganglion.
Explain the importance of the myelin sheath and describe how it is formed in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Classify neurons structurally and functionally.
Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis.
Compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials.
Explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons.
Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
Define saltatory conduction and contrast it to conduction along unmyelinated fibers.
Define synapse. Distinguish between electrical and chemical synapses by structure and by the way they transmit information.
Distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
Describe how synaptic events are integrated and modified.
Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors
Define neurotransmitter and name several classes of neurotransmitters.
Basic Concepts of Neural Integration
Describe common patterns of neuronal organization and processing.
Distinguish between serial and parallel processing.
Developmental Aspects of Neurons
Describe how neurons develop and form synapses.
Describe the process of brain development.
Name the major regions of the adult brain.
Name and locate the ventricles of the brain.
List the major lobes, fissures, and functional areas of the cerebral cortex.
Explain lateralization of hemisphere function.
Differentiate between commissures, association fibers, and projection fibers.
Describe the general function of the basal nuclei (basal ganglia).
Describe the location of the diencephalon, and name its subdivisions and functions.
Identify the three major regions of the brain stem, and note the functions of each area.
Describe the structure and function of the cerebellum.
Locate the limbic system and the reticular formation, and explain the role of each functional system.
Higher Mental Functions
Define EEG and distinguish between alpha, beta, theta, and delta brain waves.
Describe consciousness clinically.
Compare and contrast the events and importance of slow-wave and REM sleep, and indicate how their patterns change through life.
Compare and contrast the stages and categories of memory.
Describe the relative roles of the major brain structures believed to be involved in declarative and procedural memories.
Protection of the Brain
Describe how meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood-brain barrier protect the CNS.
Describe the formation of cerebrospinal fluid, and follow its circulatory pathway.
Indicate the cause (if known) and...
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