WORLD HISTORY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
1. Key Traits of a Civilization: p 20-21,
1. Advanced Cities
2. Specialized workers
3. complex institutions (ie. Government, religion, economy) 4. Record Keeping
5. Advanced Technology
2. Sumerians p 20-23, 31-32, 29-30
One of the first groups of people to form a civilization: around 3000BC. Sumerian scribbles (record keepers) invented a system of writing called cuneiform in 3500 BC. First to use potter’s wheel to shape jars, plates and bowls. Bronze Age started in Sumer 3000 BC Sumerians built a lot of city-states. In the center of all cities was a walled temple with a ziggurat in the middle. Belief in more than 1 god: Polytheism
3. Polytheism: p 31- 78
Belief in more than 1 God. Sumerians, Egyptians, Mesopotamians all believed in many gods (were polytheistic)
4. Fertile Crescent p. 29, 34, 88, 100-101
In the desert climate between Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea in SW Asia lays an arc of land providing some of the best farming in SW Asia.—leading scholars call this area the Fertile Crescent
5. Mesopotamia—p 20, 29-34,
Word in Greek means “land between the rivers”. The rivers framing Mesopotamia are Tigris and Euphrates. People first settled in S. Mesopotamia before 4500 BC. In 3300 BC the Sumerians arrived
6. Hammurabi’s Code
Babylonian Empire reached peak during reign of Hammurabi 1792-1750 BC. Hammurabi saw that a single, uniform code of laws would help unify the diverse groups within his empire. He gathered existing rules, judgments and laws into The Code of Hammurabi. He had the code engraved in stone & put all over his empire. 282 specific laws. His code reinforced the principle that Government had responsibility for what occurred in society.
7. Phoenicians—p. 73-76
Seafaring people of SW Asia that began to trade around 1100 BC. They were great shipbuilders & seafarers. They were the 1st to travel beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. Phoenicians traded goods they got from other lands. Were superb craftspeople. Red-Purple Dye—only royalty could afford. The Phoenicians developed a writing system that used symbols to represent sounds. It is called the phonetic alphabet. One of their most lasting contributions remains the spread of the alphabet.
8. Monotheism: pp 78,227,194,268,168
Belief in a single God. Comes from Greek meaning “god-worship”. 9. Jews: p. 292
People belonging to the Jewish Religion. First major religion to believe in only one God. Star of David is universal symbol of Judaism. Emblem refers to King David, ruler of the kingdom of Israel 1000-962 BC.
10. Assyrians: p.95-96
People that came from the northern part of Mesopotamia. Assyria acquired a large empire by their people (Assyrians) because they had a highly advanced military organization and state of the art weaponry. Assyrians ruled many lands and had their peak around 650BC. Assyrians were fearsome warriors and also great builders. The great walled city, Nineveh, was the largest city in its day being 3 miles long and a mile wide. The Assyrians had local governors that reported to a central authority. This became the fundamental model of the system of government management. The Assyrians also had one of the ancient world’s largest libraries. This library was the first to have many feature of the modern library with collections organized into many rooms according to subject matter. The Assyrians fell in 612 BC to the army of Medes and Chaldeans.
11. Hanging Gardens: p. 97-98
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Chaldean king Named Nebuchadnezzar restored Babylon. Because one of his wives missed the flowering shrubs of her mountain homeland, Nebuchadnezzar had fragrant trees and shrubs that rose 75 feet above Babylon’s flat, dry plain.
12. Persian Government p. 99
Persians based their empire on tolerance and diplomacy. They...