Western Art History Study Guide

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  • Topic: Baroque, House of Medici, Oil painting
  • Pages : 17 (2462 words )
  • Download(s) : 20
  • Published : January 28, 2013
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Mannerism (1527-1600)
* Confusing
* Counterpart to High Renaissance Southern Italy
* “…stylish style…” – John Sherman
* Started in central Rome
* Catholic church started to take problem with it
Jacopo da Pontormo – Deposition

* 1527
* Original Context: Commissioned for Capponi private chapel in Florence (Santa Felcita) * Materials: Oil on panel (unusual for Southern Italian art) * Other unusual things:
* Jesus isn’t the center of the painting (VOID – Empty space) * Anatomy was thrown out the window
* Unsettling (Arm fades from hot pink to pale white)
* Skin tight clothing
* Missing cross (Deposition), but has a weird fluffy cloud * Emulated source: Pieta by Michelangelo (Pontormo greatly admired Michelangelo) * Painting is supposed to depict the moment after the Pieta * Artist painted himself in the top left corner, staring directly at the audience * Patron had to have requested the confusion of the painting Bronzino – Portrait of a Young Man

* Bronzino was taken in by the Medici family
* 1540
* Courtly grace
* Materials: Oil on panel
* Patron: Someone rich (Only elite could afford portraits of themselves and spend the time to pose for it) * 3 feet x 2 ½ feet
* Half length, ¾ profile
* Unusual things:
* The space doesn’t make sense
* Color choices (Purple and yellow are complementary colors) * Probably got the pose/essence of the painting from Courier * Worm’s eye perspective (We are viewing from below)
Bronzino – Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence

* C. 1570
* Original Context: Wall in San Lerenzo (Medici sponsored church) * Materials: fresco
* Décor (San Lerenzo = Saint Lawrence)
* Subject matter: Chaos, title explains it all; St. Lawrence was literally burned on a grill * Emulated source/icon: Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel
* Unusual things:
* Background is not centered
* Angels are floating/flying in the sky, but have no wings

Giambologna – Astronomy

* Around 1575 (Heart of Mannerism)
* Original Context: Table or desk in the home
* Materials: Bronze and gilded in gold; lost wax process
* 16 inches in height
* Subject matter: Greek deity – personification of Astronomy

Arcimboldo – Fire

* Arcimboldo:
* Italian
* Artist for the Court of Holy Roman Emperors
* Designed costumes, plays, parades, etc.
* Visual pun:
* Anything you could forge or burn
* Flints – nose and ears
* Lamp – chin
* Match sticks, wicks, candle, gold chains, pistol, cannon

Baroque Art: Italy (1600-1700)
* Reaction against Mannerism
* Catholics had the Council of Trent (1545 – 1563)
* Bishops from everywhere got together
* During one of the last meetings, they were talking about how to attract people back to the church; they decided art * They said Mannerism was too chaotic and ambiguous
* Stipulations:
* Fix abuses of Mannerism
* Textual accuracy
* Art has to be direct; has to be immediately understood by the masses * Looks like it’s coming into the real world
* No titillation (naked)

Catholics| Protestant|
Art is propaganda| No art, or very little|
Cult of Saints; Intercessors| No Saints|
Virgin Mary almost given super human status| Just Jesus’ mom| Bible is in Latin; Apocrypha (Chapters that aren’t in the Protestant Bible)| Bible is in German| Transubstantiation – Communion actually transforms into the body and blood of Christ| It’s just bread and wine; symbolic|

* Rome became the capital of artistic production, again
* Southern was all about art in the church and private art collections Caravaggio – Fruit Basket

* Caravaggio:
* Most atypical
* Used a fusion of Northern techniques with Southern ideas * Lived a short life
* Went on the run after...
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