Water Supply and Sanitation

Topics: Plumbing, Bathing, Bathtub Pages: 5 (1123 words) Published: April 10, 2013


A water closet is a room which contains a flush toilet, usually accompanied by a washbowl or sink. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a flush toilet. The development of the flush toilet revolutionized human sanitation, and contributed a number of interesting developments to plumbing and architecture as structures began to be built to accommodate such toilets. Water closets come in various shapes, designs, and colors. The device is designed to receive human waste and dispose of the waste properly in a sanitary sewer system.  Most  water  closets  mount  on  the  floor,  but there are models that are wall hung. Modem water closets have various design features which create different flushing actions.


1: Eastern Water Closet (Indian Water Closet)
2: Western Water Closet

1: Eastern Water Closet: This is most commonly used in eastern part from world from Pakistan, to Bangladesh including, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. It is shaped in a way that one has to sit by foot on it. Its basin has inverted slop towards the back side of the closet where a trap excludes the sewer pipe (drain) from it.

2: Western Water Closet: It is very popular and commonly used in western part of the world. It is shaped like a chair and is used in the same manner. It also has slop towards the backside and also connects with the house drain through a trap. It has two types according to the structure (a) One Piece Water Closet which is manufactured in a way that basin and the trap are manufactured together and the (b) Two Piece Water Closet which is manufactured in a way that the basin and trap are manufactured separately. Its structure includes the following things.

1: Seat
2: Flush Tank
3: Flush Pipe

1: floor mounted european closet

2:wall hung european closet

A sink (also sinker, hand basin and wash basin) is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, for dishwashing or other purposes. Sinks generally have taps (faucets) that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing. They also include a drain to remove used water; this drain may itself include a strainer and/or shut-off device and an overflow-prevention device. Sinks may also have an integrated soap dispenser.


Single Bowl

A single bowl sink just one basin. 
Advantages :
Saves space, Easier to clean, cheaper
Double Bowl

Has two bowls.Double bowl sinks come in a wide array of configurations– two equally-sized bowls of the same depth, two equal bowls of different depths, unequal size bowls, etc. depending on the kitchen use

self-rimming (top-mount)

These sinks sit in appropriately shaped holes roughly cut in the countertop .and are then suspended from the rim Also known as drop in sinks.they are relatively easy and inexpensive to install.

Bottom-mount or under-mount 
sinks are installed below the countertop surface. The edge of the countertop material is exposed at the hole created for the sink .The sink is then clamped to the bottom of the material from below. The advantage of an undermount sink is that it gives a contemporary look to the kitchen but the disadvantages are extra cost in both the sink and the counter top.

A butler's sink is a rectangular ceramic sink with a rounded rim which is set into a work surface.[1] There are generally two kinds of butler's sinks: The London sink and the Belfast sink.

A farmer's sink is a deep sink that has a finished front. Set onto a countertop, the finished front of the sink remains exposed. This style of sink requires very little "reach-over" to access the sink.

A vessel sink is a free-standing sink, generally finished...
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