40. Petition of the Inhabitants West of the Ohio River.
Ohioans that petitioned to Congress about the monopolizing of acreage by private companies on the frontier after the War of Independence, the farmers also asked for “vacant lands”
41. James Madison, The Federalist, No. 51
To generate support for the Constitution, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay composed 85 essays under Publius in The Federalist. The security of liberty and power balanced power lies in the nation’s size and diversity.
42. James Winthrop on the Anti-Federalist Argument.
He insisted that large states would later turn to enforcing uniformity. He also opposed the Constitution and advised a Bill of Rights be drafted to avoid tyranny, which happened.
43. A July Fourth Oration
Chastised Americans saying that they have not lived up to the American Constitution. He says the American Revolution will lead to examples of freedom around the world. He also condemned slavery as a violation of American values and a shame. The speech was an example of American Nationalism and the limits of American Freedom after the Revolution.
44. Thomas Jefferson on Race and Slavery.
Jefferson shares his view on slavery. Jefferson obviously seems torn on the subject. He questions whether blacks should be considered inferior but in the end he finds this innate. He comes to a conclusion where he believes they should be emancipated but after they must leave the US he doesn’t see a future where blacks will be considered equal members.
45. William Manning on the Nature of Free Government
He writes and displays America’s political thought of his time.
46. Address of the Democratic-Republican Society of Pennsylvania The opposers of the Federalists justified their existence where the developed a defense of the right of the people to debate political issues and affect public policy. “Freedom of opinion is the bulwark of liberty.”
47. Judith Sargent Murray, “On the Equality of the Sexes” Murray wrote about how women had just as much of a right to be allowed an education and exercise their talents. And attacked the opinion that women’s happiness rested on their duties within the family.
48. George Washington, Farewell Address.
Called for Americans to overcome party spirit and unite in the name of American. He suggested parties created ill will and substituted the interests of the few in replacement of the whole. He also said to avoid any permanent alliance with other countries especially European powers.
49. George Tucker on Gabriel’s Rebellion
He opposed slavery but saw that they could not see America operating a biracial society. Proposed that slaves were to be emancipated and settled somewhere on “the western side” But legislature tightened control and restricted the masters voluntary freeing of slaves.
50. Tecumseh on Indians and Land
Tecumseh spoke and proclaimed that Indians should, “ unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land” He also said that war might occur if whites continued incursions on Native American land.
51. Felix Grundy, Battle Cry of the War Hawks
The War Hawks were a group of political leaders consisting of Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. They spoke of defending national honor against the British and annexing Canada and Florida.
52. Josephine L. Baker, “ A Second Peep at Factory Life” Baker talks about the difficulties of factory life; Long hours, monotonous work, downward pressure on wages, but they also were able to receive educational opportunities, which will allow them to earn money independently.
53. Immigrants Arriving in New York City
A reporter from the New York Times captures the scene of the thousands of immigrants flowing into New York City from ships and where they originated. Many factors inspired this flow of population. The reporter identified them with the hope inspired coming to the New Free World.