Thomas More - Utopia Summary

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Utopia – Landscape and Town Layout
• Island is crescent shaped

• Always 200 miles wide but the tapers at the ends in to perfect half circles

• Interior side of the island is like a giant harbour

• Mouth of the harbour is full of rocks and shoals, making it incredibly dangerous

• Only the utopians know the way into the harbour, this prevents invasion

• Was once a peninsula but Uptos dug a channel and turned it in to an island

• There are fifty four big towns, all identical

• The towns are no more than a day’s walk from each other

• Aircastle is the capital

• At regular intervals are large houses for farming

• Everyone farms for a period of 2 years

• The grand plans of the towns are square

• The towns are surrounded by a high wall and then an empty moat

• Houses are separated by twenty-foot carriageway

• Behind the houses are large gardens

• Anyone can enter the houses, there are no locks

• Houses are swapped every ten years

• Houses are three storeys, made of hard stone

• The roofs are raised to the horizontal with concrete

• They use glass for the windows.

Social relations/arrangements in Utopia.
• Households are the smallest social unit - no less than ten adults and no more than sixteen. • Households are governed by the oldest male.
• Wives are subordinate to their husbands, children to their parents and younger people generally to their elders. • When a girl marries she joins her husband's household, whereas boys of each generation stay at home. • Each town consists of only six thousand households.Every town is divided into four districts of equal size. Each with its own shopping centre in the middle. • Everyone in the town assembles at lunch and dinner in the dining-hall. Children under five eat in the nursery. • The children that aren't old enough to be married, wait at the dining-hall table. • The high or centre table is the place of honour, where the Styward or District Commander sits with his wife and two of the oldest residents. • The seating is always arranged in groups of four. Around the hall from eldest to youngest, so the eldest in the community get served first and the best food.

The Officials
• The population is divided into groups of 30 households, each of which elects an official called a Styward every year • Styward is the old Utopian title, the modern one being District Controller. For every 10 Stywards and the households they represent there is a Bencheater or Senior District Controller • Each town has 200 Stywards who are responsible for electing the mayor, done by a secret ballot • The Mayor remains in office for life, unless he is suspected of wanting to establish dictatorship • Every 3 days the Bencheaters have a meeting with the Mayor at which they discuss public affairs and settle any disputes

Utopian's attitude towards gold and silver:

- Gold and silver are kept locked away in case of need for war, hence they are devalued so the public won't want them. - Gold and silver are worthless to the people of Utopia and have no value. - Iron is more respected because it has uses that are significantly more useful to humans then gold and silver. - To devalue the gold and silver in the public's eyes a system was devised so that they were used for normal day objects, to immobilize slaves and adorn wrong-doers.

Working Conditions:

- Everyone farms irrespective of sex

- Everyone is taught agriculture in school

- Besides farming, everyone is taught a special trade of their own

- Everyone learns either dressmaking or tailoring

- Brought u to your parents occupation, though it is possible to transfer or to learn two trades

- Nobody is allowed to sit around doing nothing

- 6 hour working day, 3 in the morning, 2 hour lunch break, and another 3 in...
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