F UNDAMENTALS OF T HERMODYNAMICS
CLAUS BORGNAKKE RICHARD E. SONNTAG
University of Michigan
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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In this seventh edition we have retained the basic objective of the earlier editions: • to present a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics while retaining an engineering perspective, and in doing so • to lay the groundwork for subsequent studies in such ﬁelds as ﬂuid mechanics, heat transfer, and statistical thermodynamics, and also • to prepare the student to effectively use thermodynamics in the practice of engineering. We have deliberately directed our presentation to students. New concepts and deﬁnitions are presented in the context where they are ﬁrst relevant in a natural progression. The ﬁrst thermodynamic properties to be deﬁned (Chapter 2) are those that can be readily measured: pressure, speciﬁc volume, and temperature. In Chapter 3, tables of thermodynamic properties are introduced, but only in regard to these measurable properties. Internal energy and enthalpy are introduced in connection with the ﬁrst law, entropy with the second law, and the Helmholtz and Gibbs functions in the chapter on thermodynamic relations. Many real world realistic examples have been included in the book to assist the student in gaining an understanding of thermodynamics, and the problems at the end of each chapter have been carefully sequenced to correlate with the subject matter, and are grouped and identiﬁed as such. The early chapters in particular contain a much larger number of examples, illustrations and problems than in previous editions, and throughout the book, chapter-end summaries are included, followed by a set of concept/study problems that should be of beneﬁt to the students.
NEW FEATURES IN THIS EDITION
For this edition we have placed concept questions in the text after major sections of material to allow students to reﬂect on the material just presented. These questions are intended to be quick self tests for students or used by teachers as wrap up checks for each of the subjects covered. Most of these are straightforward conclusions from the material without being memory facts, but a few will require some extended thoughts and we do provide a short answer in the solution manual. Additional concept questions are placed as homework problems at the end of each chapter.
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