Theoretical Grounds of Characteristics of Language and Its Functions

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Contents
Introduction
Chapter 1. Theoretical grounds of characteristics of language and its functions. 1. Characteristics of the English language
1. English as an analytical language……………………………………..5 2. Relation between units in the English language……………………….6 1.1.3. Structure of the English language……………………………………..8 1.2.1. Functions of the English language……………………………………11 Chapter 2.1. Practical usage of functions of the English language Conclusions

Literature used

Introduction

Language is an integral part of social human being and indispensable condition of existing of modern society. The history of its development maybe began with the foundation of linguistics; after all, linguistics itself has only been established in its present form for a few decades. But people have been studying language since the invention of writing, and no doubt long before that too. As in many other subjects, the use and then the study of language for practical purposes preceded the reflective process of scholarly study. In ancient India, for example, the need to keep alive the correct pronunciation of ancient religious texts led to the investigation of articulator phonetics, while in ancient Greece the need for a technical and conceptual vocabulary to use in the logical analysis of propositions resulted in a system of parts of speech which was ultimately elaborated far beyond the immediate requirements of the philosophers who had first felt the need for such categories [12]. Afterwards language was the focus of researches among many scientists, psychologists and neurolinguists. Language is not just a rare accumulation of it’s units – phonemes, morphemes, lexemes and constructions. It’s a difficult and multilevel engine which has it’s inner structure. As Slolntsev admits, language as a system is not just sum of sentences, but the complex of rules, that help to build a sentence, and great amount of sensful and meaningful units, that are used according this rules [5].  Ferdinand de Saussure called the language the system of sighns, that express ideas. All its parts are deeply connected. The term of language structure was first introduced by the linguistics from India, than by the scholars of Prague linguistic school. But this up-to-date term belongs to a renowned linguist  Ferdinand de Saussure, who was the first who laid the groundwork of structural linguistic and semiology and devided the terms language and speech. Substantial additional contributions similar to this came from Louis Hjelmslev, Émile Benveniste and Roman Jakobson, which are characterized as being highly systematic [15].

Thus, the aim of our study is to characterize the functions of the English language and embrace its functions.

To achieve the aim it is necessary to complete the following tasks: 1. Consider a question about characteristics of English
2. Examine the relations between units in the English language 3. Observe the functions of the English language

The object of the term paper is the studying of the English language and highlighting the most significant features of it’s structure.

The subject of the term paper is characteristics of the English language and the functions of language.

Chapter 1. Theoretical grounds of characteristics of language and its functions. 1.1.Characteristics of the English language.
1.1.1.English as an analytical language.
There are two kinds of languages: synthetic and analytic ones. Synthetic languages, such as Czech or German, use a lot of inflection. In synthetic languages, word order is not very important, since the different forms of words carry the meaning. For example in Ukrainian you can have these two different sentences with basically the same word order but different meaning. English, however, needs to distinguish the meaning with word order:             A dog is chasing a cat.

            A cat is chasing a dog.
English is an...
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