The West and the World; Review Sheet

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Chapter 26 The West and The World

"Old Imperialism"
occurred between the 16th and 18th centuries; European powers did not usually acquire territory in Africa and Asia but rather built a series of trading stations; the New World was the exception--many countries established colonies in the Americas; many Europeans also emigrated from their homelands

"New Imperialism"
Began in 1880s in Africa, earlier in Asia; in 1800 Europeans controlled about 7% of the world's territory--by 1914 they controlled 84%; Britain's control of Egypt in the 1880s became the model for the "New Imperialism;" Major causes include: search for new markets and raw materials, missionary work, and new military and naval bases to protect one's interests against other European powers Social Darwinism, "survival of the fittest"

ideology of Herbert Spencer, rationalized the conquest of weak countries by stronger, more civilized ones, justified military superiority and conquest by the Europeans "White Man's Burden"
racist and patronizing view that preached that the "superior" Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to "uncivilized" peoples in other parts of the world

"Scramble for Africa"
in 1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa; by 1914, controlled all except Liberia & Ethiopia; the Berlin Conference established the rules among European powers for carving up Africa

Belgian Congo
colony of Belgium; trading stations established in 1879, and Leopold II was given control of the Congo; the Belgian rulers savagely treated the indigenous peoples in their quest for rubber and ivory; Leopold's incursion into Congo basin raised the question of the political fate of black Africa (south of the Sahara); as did Britain's conquest of Egypt

Leopold II
Monarch of Belgium who acquired the Congo in Africa
Berlin Conference, 1884-85
1884-85: established the "rules" for conquest of Africa; provisions: no imperial power could claim a territory in Africa unless it effectively controlled that territory; slavery and the slave trade in Africa was terminated; sought to prevent international conflicts between European nations over the issue of imperialism; as a result, the "scramble for Africa" was on Battle of Omdurman

1898: General Horatio H. Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000 (with machine guns) while only 28 Britons died

Boer War
Cecil Rhodes had become Prime Minister of Cape Colony in South Africa; diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal region and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but Boers controlled the region (the descendents of white Dutch settlers); Boers initially successful in repelling British troops; Kruger Telegram:1902, Kaiser Wilhelm II dispatched a telegram to the Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance; Anger at Germany swept through Britain; Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)

Japan gained Taiwan as a result; this conflict revealed China's weaknesses and resulted in further control by imperialist powers Robert Clive
captured military posts in Madras and England ousted France from India in the name of the British East India Company Ming and Qing dynasties
Ming extended rule into Mongolia and Central Asia. Soon Li revolted and Manchus took over. Qing corrected serious social and economic ills with peace and prosperity. What led Britain and China into conflict in the 1820's and 30's? opium trade- opium to China, silver to West

continued the modernization of Egypt, including the completion of the Suez Canal, but also drew the country deeply into debt. This allowed direct European control of Egypt. Ismail Ali
American Commodore who entered Edo (Tokyo) Japan and demanded diplomatic negotiations w/ the emperor. The Japanese were frightened to resist Perry's navy and therefore conceded to...
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