Chapter 9: Lesson 1
Themes for Lesson
• How did Stalin change the government and the economy of the Soviet Union? • What were the origins and goals of Italy’s fascist government? • How did Hitler rise to power in Germany and Europe in the 1930s? • What were the causes and results of the Spanish Civil War?
• Totalitarian- a government that exerts total control over the nation and citizens’ lives • Fascism- political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group, and the supreme authority of the leader over that of the individual • Appeasement- policy of giving in to a competitor’s demands in order to preserve the peace
Key Terms Cont.
• Purge- in political terms, the process of removing enemies and undesirable individuals from power • Nazism- an extreme form of fascism shaped by Hitler’s fanatical ideas about German nationalism and racial superiority • Axis powers-In world war 2, Germany, Italy and Japan
Stalin’s Soviet Union
• After the death of Lenin in 1924, Josef Stalin came to power. • Stalin decided to take “one great leap forward” to communism. • He launched the first of a series of five year plan to modernize agriculture and build new industry.
Stalin’s Economic Plan
• To modernize agriculture, Stalin encourage Soviet farmers to combine their small family farms into huge collective farms owned and run by the state. • The state takeover of farming was completed within a few years, but with terrible consequences.
Stalin’s Economic Plan Cont.
• In the Ukraine and other agricultural regions, Stalin punished resistance farmers by confiscating much or all of the food they produced. Millions of people died from starvation and millions more fled to the cities. • Stalin sent approximately 5 million peasants to labor camps in Siberia and northern Russia. • Stalin pursued rapid industrialization and by 1940 the Soviet Union was turned into a modern industrial power.
Stalin’s Reign of Terror
• Stalin completed his political domination of the Soviet Union through a series of purges. • Stalin “purified” the Communist Party by getting rid of his opponents and anyone else he believed to be a threat.
The Great Purge
• Beginning in 1943, Stalin led a series of “show trails” were the only possible verdict was “guilty” Stalin’s reign of terror during this time purged and arrested local party offices, collective farms, the secret police, and the army of anyone who he considered a threat. • By 1939, more than 7 million people from all levels of society were either executed or interned in a forced labor camp.
Fascism in Italy
• Italy’s totalitarian government arose from the failures of WW 1. • Benito Mussolini had fought and been wounded in the war. He strongly believed that the Versailles treaty should have granted Italy more Territory. • Mussolini began to attract followers, and in 1919 Mussolini formed the revolutionary Fascist Party.
Il Duce “the leader”
• Mussolini organized the Fascist groups throughout Italy by using thugs, called Blackshirts, to terrorize his opponents. • By 1922, Mussolini threatened to march on Rome and the King panicked and appointed him prime minister.
• Italy’s ailing economy improved under Il Duce’s firm command. Other European nations noted his success and applauded his as a miracle worker. • Mussolini soon showed his true colors by forging his dreams of a new Roman Empire. • Mussolini’s party slogan surmised his goals: “ The Country Is Nothing without Conquest”
Hitler’s Rise to Power Continued
Setting the Scene
• In September 1936, German dictator Adolf Hitler called hundreds of thousands of his followers to a week long rally in the German city of Nuremberg
• “ 180,000 people look to the heavens. 150 blue spotlights surge upward hundreds of meters, forming overhead the most powerful cathedral that mortals have ever seen. There,...