Baylis, Smith and Owens: The Globalization of World Politics 5e Revision guide Chapter 1: Globalization and global politics • Over the last three decades the sheer scale, scope, and acceleration of global interconnectedness has become increasingly evident in every sphere from the economic to the cultural. Sceptics do not regard this as evidence of globalization if that term means something more than simply international interdependence, i.e. linkages between countries. The key issue becomes what we understand by the term ‘globalization’. • Globalization denotes a tendency towards the growing extensity, intensity, velocity, and deepening impact of worldwide interconnectedness. • Globalization is associated with a shift in the scale of social organization, the emergence of the world as a shared social space, the relative deterritorialization of social, economic, and political activity, and the relative denationalization of power. • Globalization can be conceptualized as a fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expands the reach of power relations across regions and continents. • Globalization is to be distinguished from internationalization and regionalization. • Economic globalization may be at risk as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, but the contemporary phase of globalization has proved more robust than the sceptics recognize. • Contemporary globalization is a multidimensional, uneven, and asymmetrical process. • Contemporary globalization is best described as a thick form of globalization or globalism. • Globalization is transforming but not burying the Westphalian ideal of sovereign statehood. It is producing the disaggregated state. • Globalization requires a conceptual shift in our thinking about world politics from a principally state-centric perspective to the perspective of geocentric or global politics—the politics of worldwide social relations. • Global politics is more accurately described as distorted global politics because it is afflicted by significant power asymmetries.
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Baylis, Smith and Owens: The Globalization of World Politics 5e Revision guide Chapter 2: The evolution of international society • ‘International society’ is any association of distinct political communities that accept some common values, rules, and institutions. • It is the central concept of the ‘English School’ of International Relations. • Although originally coined to refer to relations among European states, the term may be applied to many different sets of political arrangements among distinct political communities. • Elements of international society may be found from the time of the first organized human communities. • Early forms of diplomacy and treaties existed in the ancient Middle East. • Relations among the city-states of ancient Greece were characterized by more developed societal characteristics, such as arbitration. • Ancient China, India, and Rome all had their own distinctive international societies. • Medieval Europe’s international society was a complex mixture of supranational, transnational, national, and subnational structures. • The Catholic Church played a key role in elaborating the normative basis of medieval international society. • Islam developed its own distinctive understanding of international society. • The main ingredients of contemporary international society are the principles of sovereignty and nonintervention, and the institutions of diplomacy, the balance of power, and international law. • These took centuries to develop, although the Peace of Westphalia (1648) was a key event in their establishment throughout Europe. • The Napoleonic Wars were followed by a shift to a more managed, hierarchical, international society within Europe and an imperial structure in Europe’s relations with much of the rest of the world. • The League of Nations was...