The Enduring Vision: Book Index

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Chapter 1:
Native Peoples of America,
to 1500
I. The First Americans, c. 13000-2500 BC
1. Widespread Settlement
a. NE Asia
2. Learned from each other
A. Peopling New Worlds
1. 2 dominate theories
a. Siberian Hunters
i. Crossed land-bridge during Ice Age
b. Earlier people traveled by boat
2. Stories confirm that ancestors originated in Western Hemisphere 3. Paleo-Indians
a. First Americans
b. Established the foundations of Native American life
i.Bands of around 15-50 people
a. Men hunted
b. Women prepared food and cared for children
c. Hunters may have disrupted Ice Age food chain
B. Archaic Societies
1. 8000-4000 BC warming of Earth’s atmosphere
2. Paleo-Indians modified ways of life
3. Climate Change
a. Rising sea levels
b. Glacier runoff> rivers
c. Plains>forests
d. Wider variety of plants and animals arose
4. Gender roles more important
a. Men fish/hunt
b. Women farm
5. Maize=important crop
II. Cultural Diversity c. 2500 BC- 1500 AD
1.Farming radically changed the environment
2.Farming also linked many societies through trading
A.Mesoamerica and South America
1.Quantity & quality of crops increased
2.Trade of surplus to non-farming neighbors
3.Wealth and Power through formal exchange services
4. Highly unequal societies
5. War with drafted soldiers
6.Capital cities with large pyramids
7.Mayans
a.Developed calendar, number system, writing.
8.Aztecs
a.Dominated gulf coast
b.Sacrifice to nourish gods
c.Maximized food production for support of large population d.Elaborate irrigation system
9. Inca
a. Andes region
b. Produce and distribute a wide range of surplus crops c. Storehouses
d. freeze-drying
e. irrigation
B. The Southwest
1. Variety of landscape
a. securing water a challenge
2. 2 cultures rose from migration
a. Hohokam
i. irrigation (2 crops per year)
ii. Large, organized...
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