Tripsas, M. and G. Gavetti (2000). Capabilities, cognition, and inertia: evidence from digital imaging.
This paper investigates the case study of Polaroid Corporation. Examining the historical development of this ﬁrm, Tripsas and Gavetti are giving attention to the changing capabilities and beliefs in the evolution of Polaroid. This ﬁrm was once a very successful company, they owned a lot of patents and a strong market position, but with the radical technological change in the imaging industry, the invention and production of digital ﬁlm, their business model of cheap hardware and expensive software - the razor/blade model - didn‘t work out anymore. Although they had the knowledge, organizational and learning capabilities to adapt this new trend, the senior management did not invest in the production and hold on to the old path. This became an popular example for the innovation success trap referred to Levinthal and March(1993) and another paper of March(1991), However, Polaroid is back to business, thanks to trend changes in consumers interest and their development in technology and product change. Another example, similar to the Polaroid case could be Xerox. They invented the graphical user interface, but did not use it, so Apple did. References: Levinthal, D. A. & March, J. G. (1993). ‘The myopia of lear ning’. Strategic Management Journal , 14, 95–112. March, J. G. (1991). ‘Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning’. Organization Science, 2, 71–87. Van Oorschot, K.E., Romme, A.G.L. & Walrave, B. (2011). Getting Trapped in the Suppression of Exploration: A Simulation Model. Journal of management studies : JMS. - Oxford : Blackwell, ISSN 0022-2380, ZDB-ID 2424976. - Vol. 48.2011, 8, p. 1727-1752.
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O'Reilly C., Tushman M., (2008). Ambidexterity as a Dynamic Capability: Resolving the Innovator’s Dilemma.
This paper is about facing changes and how companies...