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HUN 1201

Midterm Study Guide

Fall 2010

General

Phytochemicals can be defined as what?

Common examples of phytochemicals include…

Are the health benefits of phytochemicals proven?

Discuss the two categories of vitamins.

Which nutrients are energy-yielding nutrients?

Which nutrients are macronutrients?

Which nutrients are essential nutrients? Why?

Which nutrient is the most calorie dense?

Which nutrients are organic?

Which nutrients are needed in small amounts?

What are the building blocks of the energy-yielding nutrients?

Define nutritional supplements?

What is the Exchange List? What is the foundation for Exchange Lists? Why are they called “Exchanges”?

Which groups in the Exchange system have carbohydrates?

Which groups in the Exchange system have fats? Proteins?

Define RDA, UL, EAR ?

What is the Food Guide and how is it used? What categories are listed in the Food Guide Pyramid?

A man consumes a food containing 20 grams of carbohydrates, 9 grams of lipids and 4 grams of protein. What percent of his calories comes from carbohydrates? From lipids? From protein?

A woman consumes 1400 calories in a 24 hour time period. If 50% of her calories come from carbohydrates, 15% from protein, how many grams of lipids is found her diet?

Food Safety

What is the role of the Food and Drug Administration regarding food and food safety?

What is the role of the Environmental Protection Agency regarding food and food safety?

What is the role of the United States Department of Agriculture regarding food and food safety?

What role does the Federal Trade Commission play in foods and food safety?

Food borne illnesses may result from what causes?

What steps can be taken to keep food safe?

Proteins

State the functions of proteins.

Define the term “denature”.

Define the term transamination.

What chemical elements make up proteins?

The following are associated with protein or the lack of: kwashiorkor, edema. Define them.

What are the differences between kwashiorkor in children and the condition in adults?

Define protein complementing. Give examples.

Define protein supplementing. Give examples.

Hunger

Historically what triggered the hunger debate or concern in America?

State the reasons for malnutrition, specifically undernutrition in the United States? How does that differ in the non-Western world?

Define appetite.

Define hunger.

Define marasmus.

Carbohydrates

State all the functions of carbohydrates.

State the building block for carbohydrates.

State the 3 monosaccharides, the 3 disaccharides, the polysaccharides.

The building block for carbohydrates has many names. List them.

Define ketosis, ketone bodies and ketonuria.

Define diverticula, diverticulosis, and diverticulitis.

Define glycolysis.

Define gluconeogenesis.

Define glycogenesis.

What is the storage form of carbohydrates in plants? In animals?

What hormones are involved in blood glucose regulation? What do they do?

Lipids

State the three types/categories of lipids.

Which of the above should predominate in out diet?

What are omega- 3 fatty acids? Where can they be found?

What are omega-6 fatty acids? Where can they be found?

What are saturated fatty acids?

What are trans fatty acids?

State the lipoproteins, their functions and what they are made up of.

How much cholesterol is needed by the body daily?

What increases cholesterol levels in the blood?

What decreases cholesterol levels in the blood?

What are food sources of saturated fats?

What are food sources of unsaturated fats?

Anatomy

Know the organs in the digestive tract and their functions. Know the enzymes produced for protein, carbohydrates and lipids. Know the (4) sphincters along the route of the digestive tract. Know the secretions, i.e. HCL, Bile, and Sodium Bicarbonate, saliva including...
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