Statistics in Business
QNT/351
William Modey
Quantitative Analysis for Business
Salonyia Fisher

Summary
Statistics is accurately defined as the study of the analysis, data collection, and organization of the data which is interpreted by a particular business field. Statistics main focus is usually dealing with the preparation procedure of the data collection in the course of developing surveys and creating experiments. When an organization uses statistics, it needs to be taken into consideration that there are two main types of statistics, which are inferential statistics and descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics targets to sum up data sets, instead of just using data collected from a given population. Inferential statistics is used to describe different systems of procedures that can draw conclusions from arising datasets pretentious by random variations. Methods of Statistics

There are several different methods of statistics. The first method is experimental method, which uses several different steps in this process that includes planning the research process, designing the experiments, performing the experiments, further examining the datasets, and documenting the results of the study. The second method is the observational study, which explores the correlation between two things. The third method of statistics is levels of measurement. This method has four levels of measurement, ratio, ordinal, nominal, and interval. All four of these measurements are different in use. The Null hypothesis is another method that is an interpretation of statistical information, which involves the development of a null hypothesis in which the assumption is related to the proposed cause (Wegner, 2010).

Data Collection Method

The data collection method tends to have three stages, which are pre collection activity, collection, and present findings. Before starting any form of data collection the pre collection is the most critical stage in this process....

...Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design ofsurveys and experiments.
The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statistics is an art “This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (such as mean or median) calculated from a set of data, whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seems wrong" or "these statistics are misleading").
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Scope
Some consider statistics a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data while others consider it a branch of mathematics]concerned with collecting and interpreting data. Because of its empirical roots and its focus on applications, statistics is usually considered a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. Much of statistics is non-mathematical: ensuring that data collection is undertaken in a way that produces valid conclusions; coding and archiving data so that information is retained and made useful for international comparisons of official statistics; reporting of results and summarised...

...manipulated or processed
into information that is valuable to decision making. The processing and manipulation of raw
data into meaningful information are the heart of data analysis. Data analysis includes data
description, data inference, the search for relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard deviations.
Uncertainty is a key aspect of most business problems. To deal with uncertainty, we need a basic
understanding of probability. Chapter 2 covers basic rules of probability and in Chapter 3 we
discuss the important concept of probability distributions in some generality.
In Chapter 4 we discuss statistical inference (estimation), where the basic problem is to estimate
one or more characteristics of a population. Since it is too expensive to obtain the population
information, we instead select a sample from the population and then use the information in the
sample to infer the characteristics of the population.
In Chapter 5 we look at the topic of...

...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...

...In today’s world, we are faced with situations everyday where Statistics can be applied. In general, Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, and analyzing numerical data. The techniques involved in Statistics are important for the work of many professions, thus the proper preparation and theoretical background of Statistics is valuable for many successful career paths. Marketing campaigns, the realm of gambling, professional sports, the world of business and economics, the political domain, education, and forecasting future occurrences are all areas which fundamentally rely on the use of Statistics. Statistics is a broad subject that branches off into several categories. In particular, Inferential Statistics contains two central topics: estimation theory and hypothesis testing.
The goal of estimation theory is to arrive at an estimator of a parameter that can be implemented into one’s research. In order to achieve this estimator, statisticians must first determine a model that incorporates the process being studied. Once the model is determined, statisticians must find any limitations placed upon an estimator. These limitations can be found through the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Under smoothness conditions, the Cramer-Rao lower bound gives a formula for the lower bound on the variance of an unbiased estimator. Once the estimator is developed, it...

...Statistics in Business
QNT/351
Statistics in Business
What is statistics? Statistics is collecting, measuring, analyzing, and communicating data. There are two types of statistics, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2011). Statistics are applied in different situations. This paper will describe the role statistics has in making business decisions. This paper will also provide examples of situations in which statistics are applied.
Types of Statistics
Lind, Marchal, and Wathen define statistics as “The science of collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data to assist in making more effective decisions (Lind, et al., 2011, p. 5). In statistics there are two types, descriptive and inferential statistics. First, descriptive statistics is the informative organization, summarization, and presentation of data. The second type of statistics is inferential statistics. Inferential statistics is also called statistical inference, is “the methods used to estimate a property of a population on the basis of a sample” (Lind, et al., 2011 p. 7).
Statistic Examples
One example of...

...
Statistics in Business
QNT/351
Donald Lifke
Statistics in BusinessStatistics is defined as the science of data. It involves collecting, classifying, summarizing, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting numerical information. (McClave, Benson, & Sincich, 2011, p. 3). . There are two different application process involved in statistics; descriptive and inferential. Descriptivestatistics is the analysis that helps describe, summarize or show data in a way to allow patterns to emerge from the data. This can be captured numerically or graphically. Inferential statistics require the statistician to reach conclusions in way that extends beyond the immediate data alone, to draw an inference of the data.
Our text states there are two general types of statistics; qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative data are measurements that cannot be measured on a natural numerical scale; they can only be classified into one group of categories. It is also sub classified as interval or ratio. Where quantitative data is the opposite, it only recorded on a naturally occurring numerical scale. It is sub classified nominal or ordinal. (McClave, Benson, & Sincich, 2011, p. 13).
Statistics play a major role in business decision making on a daily basis. Statistics provide businesses with...

...Statistics is in our everyday life and in the work environment because each of us deals with numerical numbers that are everywhere. Statistics is collecting information which can be data or numbers that involves organizing, analyzing, presenting and finding the meaning of a problem (Lind, 2011). There are two types of statistics which are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. For descriptivestatistics this summarizing and organizes data in a particular way it is a set of basic numbers that is describing something. For inferential statistics it is a decision more like a prediction and estimation of a population for sampling. Data can be identify as the levels of measurements that are use for a problem to analyze the results this includes nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each one of these measurements indicates the calculations for classifying the collective data.
In the world of businessstatistics play a role in the decision making. It helps businesses and companies establish a base of the given results often times statistics can be form graphically to capture a target point. Data is everywhere even in a career an individual may work in or want to pursue. Statistics determines the possible facts to a problem deeper to find the results. These results can be by charts or by any graphical form the...

...
Group Assignment
BusinessStatistics
CBEB1109
Tutorial : Tuesday 11.00am – 12.00pm
Instructor : Dr. Sharifah Latifah Binti Syed A Kadir
Group : Group 2
Group Members :
1.
Kao Wei Jian
CEA 130028
2.
Lim Kin Chun
CEA 130041
3.
Amirul Asyraaf bin Azhar
CEA 130002
4.
Nur Hasfaiza bt Mohd Zaid
CEA 130063
5.
Muhammad Hamdin Zarif Bin Mohd Zaidi
CEA 100062
6.
Lim Sin Pei
CEA 130043
7.
Wong Siew Yen
CEA 130097
1. Of 100 individuals who applied for systems analyst positions with a large firm during the past year, 40 had some prior work experience, 30 had a professional certificate and 20 of them had both work experience and a certificate.
a Determine if work experience and certification are independent events.
Let A = Prior Work experience
B = Professional Certificate
A
A’
Total
B
20
30
50
B’
40
10
50
Total
60
40
100
=
= 0.4
P(A) =
= 0.6
, so it is not an independent event.
b What is the probability that a randomly chosen applicant,
i had either work experience or a certificate?
) =
=
= 0.9
ii has neither work experience nor a certificate?
iii has a certificate if he has some previous work experience?
= 0.33
2. Because of economic conditions, a firm reports that 30 percent if its accounts receivable from other business firms are overdue. If an accountant takes a random sample of 10 such accounts, determine the probability that
p=30% @ 0.3
n=10
X~B(10,0.3)
a. none of the account is overdue
By...

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