How many standard deviations is my hypothesis (sample mean) is away from the actual (null hypothesis population mean) T – statistic

Rejecting the null may be a mistake = p –value

ONE SAMPLE
3 formulas
T.Dist.rt (t, sample size - 1 “df”) -> alternative that mu is bigger than a 1 – T.Dist.rt (t, sample size – 1) -> mu is less than a T.Dist.2t(t,samplesize - 1) -> not equal to

p < significant level reject the null

NEVER accept null

TWO SAMPLE
directly get the p-value
chance that under the null hypthoesis, you have a difference in the sample mean that is as extreme or more as what you have now. If that probability is small, it is something in the nature not due to chance.

* Paired: T.Test (sample 1, sample 2, # of tails , 1)
* not equal to: number of tails = 2
* greater than or less than: number of tails = 1
* Type 1 = paired data (ex: every UNC mba student’s salary before they entered the program and salaries after graduate ) * salaries have a significant increase after mba?
*
* Independent: T.Test (sample 1, sample 2, # tails, 2)
* Type 2 = independent (ex: UNC mbas vs. DUKE mbas)
*
*
*
* Regression Coefficient:
*
* Null hypothesis: THIS regression coefficient = 0
* alternative hypothesis: THIS particular regression coefficient of interest is not 0 *
* (driver’s p-value and coefficient in ANOVA)
*
* THIS driver’s p-value is less than significant level, then the driver has a significant impact on the outcome. *
* ** for each individual driver
*
*
* Hypothesis test on a regression model as a whole:
*
* Null: All slope coefficients = 0 (R square being zero) * Alt: At least ONE slope coefficient is not equal to zero (R square greater than 0) *
* P-value is SIGNIFICANCE F on the ANOVA.
*
IF significance F < significant level, regression model is significant as a whole. *
*
*...

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Final Project: Nyke Shoe Company
Barbara Greczyn
STA 201 - Principles of Statistics
Instructor Alok Dihtal
April 26, 2015
Introduction
Nyke Shoe Company has been in business for over 50 years. Over the last five years, the company has been undergoing some financial hardship due to an erratic market and an inability to understand what the consumer actually needs. In a last ditch effort to avoid bankruptcy, they have adopted a new business model which entails the development of only one shoe size. In order to achieve this goal, statistical data must be utilized and applied to make the best choice. The data used will be explained to the fullest and a conclusion will be then obtained.
Methodology
A sample group of 35 participants was gathered, 18 females and 17 males. Their heights and shoe sizes were gathered and their data was processed in three categories: shoe size, height, gender. Descriptive statistics was applied to three separate data sets, one with all participants included, one sets with just female participants, and one with just male participants. Then a two sample t-test was conducted with the assumption that there were unequal variances amongst both male and female data sets.
Results
There is a normal distribution of the data with ranges in size from size 5 to size 14 amongst the participants. With these ranges, the mean is 9.142, with a standard deviation of 2.583 and a variance...

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QNT 561 FinalExam
1) Which of the following measures of central location is affected most by extreme values? A. MeanB. MedianC. Mode D. Geometric mean
2) A correlation matrix…A.Shows all simple coefficients of correlation between variablesB. shows only correlations that are zeroC. shoes the correlations that are positiveD. shows only the correlations that are statistically significant
3) In a set of observations, which measure of central tendency reports the value that occurs most often? A. Mean B. MedianC. ModeD. Geometric mean
4) Which level of measurement is required for the median? A. Nominal B. OrdinalC. IntervalD. Ratio
5) The mean and the variance are equal in…A. the normal distributionB. the binomial distributionC. the Poisson distributionD. the hypergeometric distribution
6) The difference between the sample mean and the population mean is called the…A. margin of errorB. population standard deviationC. standard error of the meanD. sampling error
7) A dummy variable or indicator variable… A. may assume only a value of 0 or 1B. is another term for the dependent variableC. is a quantitative variableD. is a variable at a ratio or interval level of measurement
8) A Type I error is…A. the correct decisionB. a value determined from the test statisticC. rejecting the null hypothesis when it is trueD. accepting the null hypothesis...

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Statistics
BUS308: Statistics for Mangers
Instructor:
Learning Statistics
Statistical data has become an item that we see all around us in our everyday lives, from television programs talking about selling products or politicians using data to show how they perform in their jobs, in hopes to be reelected. Throughout the course in Statistics for Managers, I have learned many things on how the use of statistical information can help me to understand these items and also to help me to perform my job and understand the day-to-day operation of the company. With the use of statistics, anyone can find out information and details on most anything, allowing them to understand a business better or to make better decisions in their everyday life. Because statistics is all around us, using and understanding this information is important to find answers to questions, to make better decisions, and understand how things work.
Some of the types of information I have learned to use is through the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. According to the textbook for statistics, “descriptive characteristics can provide a great economy when data sets are large. Inferential statistics are utilized when the sample’s characteristics are important for what they reveal about the entire population”. (Tanner & Youssef-Morgan, 2013) Even though there are...

...BUS 475 FinalExam
Copy this link to your browser and download:
http://www.finalexamguide.com/BUS-475-Final-Exam-3-227.htm
1) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
2) Managerial accounting __________.
3) What is value chain management best defined as?
4) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
5) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
6) If a company reports a net loss, it __________.
7) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
8) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
9) Which one of the following is a product cost?
10) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
11) The primary purpose of the statement of cash flows is to __________.
12) Multinational corporations...

...of the test statistic z using z = .
The claim is that the proportion of drowning deaths of children attributable to beaches is more than 0.25, and the sample statistics include drowning deaths of children with 30% of them attributable to beaches.
a. 2.86
b. 2.71
c. -2.86
d. -2.71
11.
STAT10T 8.2.5-3
(Points: 5.0) Use the given information to find the P-value.
The test statistic in a left-tailed test is z = -1.83.
a. 0.0336
b. 0.4326
c. 0.0443
d. 0.4232
12.
STAT10T 8.3.2-2
(Points: 5.0) Find the P-value for the indicated hypothesis test.
In a sample of 88 children selected randomly from one town, it is found that 8 of them suffer from asthma. Find the P-value for a test of the claim that the proportion of all children in the town who suffer from asthma is equal to 11%.
a. 0.5686
b. 0.2843
c. 0.2157
d. -0.2843
13.
STAT10T 9.4.1-1
(Points: 5.0) The two data sets are dependent. Find to the nearest tenth.
a. 32.0
b. 19.2
c. 40.0
d. 41.6
14.
STAT10T 9.4.3-1
(Points: 5.0) Assume that you want to test the claim that the paired sample data come from a population for which the mean difference is μd = 0. Compute the value of the t test statistic.
a. t = 0.578
b. t = 1.292
c. t = 0.415
d. t = 2.890
15.
STAT10T 9.4.4-3
(Points: 5.0) Determine the decision criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis in the given hypothesis test;...

...
=((61-64.5)-(0))/√((16*16)/200+(13*13)/120) = (-3.5)/1.6396 = -2.1347
Critical Value: Zα/2= Z0.05/2= @qnorm(1-0.05/2)= 1.96
When comparing the test statistic to the critical value: Z=2.1347>1.96, we reject the null hypothesis.
We can calculate the P-value using the EViews command:
Show @tdist (t, d.f)
In this EViews command, t stands for the appropriate test statistic and d.f are the degrees of freedom. The appropriate teststatistic was calculated above, namely Z=2.1347. For the degrees of freedom, we can insert NA+NB-2.
Show @tdist (2.1347, 318)= 0.03355
Since the P-value= 0.033550, and β1= 0.86361050000
ls price c assessval
Dependent Variable: PRICE
Method: Least Squares
Date: 01/21/13 Time: 16:07
Sample: 1 650 IF PRICE>50000
Included observations: 562
Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.
C 12314.91 3021.988 4.075103 0.0001
ASSESSVAL 0.823041 0.022695 36.26546 0.0000
R-squared 0.701363 Mean dependent var 113069.1
Adjusted R-squared 0.700829 S.D. dependent var 51534.97
S.E. of regression 28187.83 Akaike info criterion 23.33472
Sum squared resid 4.45E+11 Schwarz criterion 23.35013
Log likelihood -6555.056 Hannan-Quinn criter. 23.34074
F-statistic 1315.184 Durbin-Watson stat 1.337129
Prob(F-statistic) 0.000000
Estimated intercept (b0): 12314.91
Estimated...

...p of success and (1 – p) of failure on each observation, the possible values of X are 1, 2, 3,…
--If n is any one of these values, the probability that the first success occurs on the nth trial is: P(X = n) = (1 – p)n-1p; --The probability that it takes more than n trials to see the first success is P(X > n) = (1 – p)n
BIAS CONTD: A parameter is a number that describes the population. A parameter is a fixed number, but in practice we do not know its value because we cannot examine the entire population
CHAPTER 7: Sampling and SAMPLING DIST
A statistic is a number that describes a sample. The value of a statistic is known when we have taken a sample, but it can change from sample to sample. We often use a statistic to estimate as unknown parameter.
The sampling distribution of a statistic is the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possible samples of the same size from the same population
A statistic used to estimate a parameter is unbiased if the mean of its sampling distribution is equal to the true value of the parameter being estimated
Measurement: 1) Ambiguous question; 2) Hawthorn effect; 3) Respondent error
Central limit theorem – regardless of how the pop is distributed, as the sampling gets large enough, the sampling dist will get closer to the pop dist.
CHAPTER 8: CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
Conditions for Constructing a Confidence Interval for m: The...

...EMGT 571
STATISTICS I
TAKE HOME FINALEXAM
Problems – Answer the following problems…BE SURE TO SHOW ALL WORK!!!. You can use excel, SPSS or word as the medium for generating solutions to the problems. I recommend you use excel and SPSS
1. The time at which the mailman delivers the mail follows a normal distribution with a mean of 2:00PM and a standard deviation of 15 minutes (20 pts)
a) What is the probability that the mail will arrive before 1:50PM?
b) What is the probability that the mail will arrive after 2:30PM?
c) What is the probability that the mail will arrive between 1:40PM and 2:20PM?
d) Between what two times (equally before the mean and equally after the mean) accounts for the mail being delivered 95% of the time?
2. The income of junior executives in a large corporation are normally distributed with a standard deviation of $1200. A cutback is pending, at which time those who earn less than $28,000 will be discharged. If such a cut represents 10% of the junior executives, what is the current mean (average) salary of the group of junior executives? (10 points)
3. A large industrial firm uses 3 local motels to provide overnight accommodations for its clients. From past experience it is known that 20% of the clients are assigned rooms at the Ramada Inn, 50% at the Sheraton, and 30% at the Holiday Inn. It is found (a given condition) that plumbing is faulty at 5% of the...