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III

Naminosuke Kubota

Propellants and Explosives
Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion

Second, Completely Revised and Extended Edition

IV

The Author
Prof. Dr. Naminosuke Kubota
Asahi Kasei Chemicals
Propellant Combustion Laboratory
Arca East, Kinshi 3-2-1, Sumidaku
Tokyo 130-6591, Japan

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produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and
publisher do not warrant the information contained
in these books, including this book, to be free of
errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that
statements, data, illustrations, pro cedural details or
other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.
Library of Congress Card No.:
applied for
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from
the British Library.

First Edition 2001

Bibliographic information published by
the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this
publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie;
detailed bibliographic data are available in the
Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,
Weinheim
All rights reserved (including those of translation
into other languages). No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form − by photoprinting,
microfilm, or any other means − nor transmitted or
translated in to a machine language without written
permission from the publishers. Registered names,
trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not
specifically marked as such, are not to be
considered unprotected by law.
Typesetting primustype Robert Hurler GmbH
Printing betz-Druck GmbH, Darmstadt
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Cover Design Grafik-Design Schulz, Fußgönheim
Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany
Printed on acid-free paper

ISBN: 978-3-527-31424-9

V

Table of Contents

Preface

XVII

Preface to the Second Edition XIX
1
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.1.1
1.2.1.2
1.2.1.3
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.2.1
1.3.2.2
1.3.2.3
1.3.3
1.3.3.1
1.3.3.2
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2

Foundations of Pyrodynamics 1
Heat and Pressure 1
First Law of Thermodynamics 1
Specific Heat 2
Entropy Change 4
Thermodynamics in a Flow Field 5
One-Dimensional Steady-State Flow 5
Sonic Velocity and Mach Number 5
Conservation Equations in a Flow Field 6
Stagnation Point 6
Formation of Shock Waves 7
Supersonic Nozzle Flow 10
Formation of Propulsive Forces 12
Momentum Change and Thrust 12
Rocket Propulsion 13
Thrust Coefficient 14
Characteristic Velocity 15
Specific Impulse 16
Gun Propulsion 16
Thermochemical Process of Gun Propulsion 16
Internal Ballistics 18
Formation of Destructive Forces 20
Pressure and Shock Wave 20
Shock Wave Propagation and Reflection in Solid Materials

2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2

Thermochemistry of Combustion 23
Generation of Heat Energy 23
Chemical Bond Chemical Bond Energy 23
Heat of Formation and Heat of Explosion 24

20

VI

Table of Contents

2.1.3
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3

Thermal Equilibrium 25
Adiabatic Flame Temperature 27
Chemical Reaction 31
Thermal Dissociation 31
Reaction Rate 31
Evaluation of Chemical Energy 32
Heats of Formation of Reactants and Products 33
Oxygen Balance 36
Thermodynamic Energy 36

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.1.1
3.5.1.2
3.5.1.3
3.5.1.4
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.3.1
3.5.3.2
3.5.4

Combustion Wave Propagation 41
Combustion Reactions 41
Ignition and Combustion 41
Premixed and Diffusion Flames 42
Laminar and Turbulent Flames 42
Combustion Wave of a Premixed Gas 43
Governing Equations for the Combustion Wave 43
Rankine−Hugoniot Relationships 44
Chapman−Jouguet Points 46
Structures of Combustion Waves 49
Detonation Wave 49
Deflagration Wave 51
Ignition Reactions 53
The Ignition Process 53
Thermal Theory of Ignition...
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