-The Study of Human Behavior in Society
The Classical Sociological Thinkers
• Auguste Comte: Introduced the term “sociology” / Founder Catalyst for, “modernism”: the belief in evolutionary progress through the application of science • Alexis de Tocqueville: A French social theorist. Believed that democracy can either enhance or erode individual liberty. • Karl Marx: Believed that class was the organizing principle of social life; all other divisions would eventually become class divisions; The Communist Manifesto • Emile Durkeim: Master of Sociological inquiry. He searched for distinctly social origins of even most individual and personal of issues. Mechanical Solidarity: Life is uniform and people are similar; share a common culture. Organic Solidarity: common values are present but less obvious Four types of suicide: |Egotistic |Anomic |Altruistic |Fatalistic | |Individual kills him or her self|The person floats in a sense of |A suicide that resulted from too|A suicide in which people feel | |because he or she does not feel |normlessness and doesn’t know |much integration aka suicide |overregulated, trapped by rules | |connected to a group |the rules that govern social |bombers |that are not of their own making| | |life | | |
• George Simmel: Was on a quest for a subject matter for sociology that would distinguish it from the other social sciences and the humanistic disciplines. The American Sociological Thinkers
• Thorstein Veblen: Argued that America was split in two, between the “productive”-those who work- and the “pecuniary” –those who have money. Divided Americans into workers and owners, respectively. • Lester Ward: one of the founders of the American Sociology. Rebelled against “Social Darwinism”: each succeeding society as improving on the one before it. • George Herbert Mead: Studied the development of individual identity through social processes. Argued that identity is the product of our interactions with ourselves & with others i.e. The looking Glass Self: |I |Generalized Other |Me | |The part of us that is inherent and |Person’s notion of the common values, norms, |The part of us that is | |biological |and expectations of other people in society |self-conscious and created by | | | |observing ourselves in | | | |interaction. |
The Other Canon
• Mary Wollstonecraft: an advocate of the equality of the sexes; one of the first major feminist. • Margaret Fuller: America’s first female foreign correspondent. Called on women to become self-reliant and not expect help from men and introduces the concept of sisterhood. • Frederick Douglass: African American intellectual of the 19th century; abolitionist, editor; his work stood as a testament to the cruelty and illogic of slavery, claiming that all humans beings were equally capable of being full individuals. • W.E.B. Du Bois: the most articulate spokesman for the civil rights of black people. Founder of the NAACP & pan-african Movement • Charlotte Perkins Gilman: had a ground break in her novel women and economics: explored the origin of women’s subordination and its function in evolution. |Symbolic Interaction |Structural Functionalism |Conflict Theories | |Examines how an individuals interactions |A theory that social life consisted...
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