1) defining deviance is difficult and subjective (sociologists don’t agree). 2) for our purpose deviance must
A) violate significant norms.
B) Result in negative evaluation for reaction.
1) Conflict theory.- stress that the power elite uses the legal system to control worker and to stabilize the social order, all with the goal of keeping itself in power. The poor pose a threat, for if they rebel as a group they can dislodge members of the power elite from their place of privilege. To prevent this, the power elite makes certain that heavy penalties come down on those who’s crimes could upset the social order. 2) Functional theory- Argue that crime is a natural part of society. Stress that the sociall classes differ in opportunities for income and education, so they differ in opportunities for crime. As a result, street crime is higher among the lower social classes and white-collar crime is higher among the higher social classes. The growing crime rates of women illustrate how changing gender roles have given women more access to what sociologist call “illegitimate opportunities.” 3) Social foundations-
Labeling Theory-questions who applies what label to whom, why they do this, and what happens as a result of this labeling. The significance of reputations, how they help set us on paths that propel us into deviance or that diver us away from it. Anomie Theory-concept developed by Emile Durkheim to describe an absence of clear societal norms and values. In the concept of anomie individuals lack a sense of social regulation: people feel unguided in the choices they have to make. Differential Association-a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior (how people learn to become criminals). Crime
1). Elements –
1) Dr. Thomas Szasz – mental illness are neither mental nor illness. They are simply problem behaviors. 2) Rosenhahn study-A study done proving “it is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric labels might be a solution and recommended education to make psychiatric workers more aware of the social psychology of their facilities. In this study 8 “mentally healthy” people took hallucinations attempting to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals in five different states. All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. After admission they acted normal again and told staff they felt fine, all were forced to admit to having t a mental illness and agree to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release. All but one was diagnosed with schizophrenia. The second part of his study involved an offended hospital challenging Rosenhan to send pseudopatients to its facility, which its staff would then detect. Rosenhan agreed and in the following weeks out of 193 new patients the staff identified 41 as potential pseudopatients, with 19 of these receiving suspicion from at least 1 psychiatrist and 1 other staff member. In fact Rosenhan had sent no one to the hospital Substance Abuse
1) Types of drug use-
2) Social policy-
3) Conflict view-Individuals and groups in society struggle to maximize their share of the limited resources that exist and are desired by humans. Given that there are limited resources, the struggle inevitably leads to conflict and competition. These struggles can lead to changes in institutions and societies as different groups come into power.
Social control- The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society. 1) Formal- Expressed though law as statues, rules and regulations against deviant behavior. Usually carried out by those in a position of power and/or authority such as a police officer, judge, or principal of a school. 2) Informal- Denominates customs, traditions, norms and other social values...