IV – controlled or manipulated
Color of T-shirt participants wore
DV – measured
Benefit of random assignment:
* The participants who wore black t-shirts and white t-shirts were equal on all other factors except the color they were wearing * People who are naturally aggressive have an equal chance of being in each group
Which of the following types of studies allows researchers to draw causal conclusions? C) Experimental
Hypotheses are used to test theories.
-Theories explain many different observations and they explain the causal relationships that we expect exist. -A hypothesis is derived from a theory and is very specific.
Operational Definitions are important!
* Some constructs are easier to define than others
* What does it mean “to wear black clothes”?
* What do we mean by “aggression”?
* convert an abstract concept into a NUMBER
The idea of how much your operational definition actually overlaps with what you are trying to measure.
Experimental Research – Interpreting Results
Interaction: when the effect of one IV on the DV depends on the value (or level) of the other IV
Main Effect: When an IV has an effect of similar magnitude and direction across levels of the other IV
Ethics of Experimental Research
* institutional review boards
* informed consent
* use deception only if essential
* protect people from harm
* information about participants should remain confidential * debrief participants at end
Methods – summary
* independent variable (IV) is something that is manipulated * dependent variable (DV) is something that is measured
* Correlational studies can determine variables that are related, but cannot determine that one variable CAUSES another * Experimental lab studies can, however, determine causation Remember James!
James represents the typical case
He is an average
Represents our best estimate under experimental conditions
He is NOT an individual
Distinct from anecdotes or individual experience
Methods – read chapter 1 for more
The coming weeks…
* How people know and perceive themselves?
* Why do we have emotions?
* How do we persuade others?
* Social psychologists are interested in three main aspects of human experience: * Affect – feelings, emotions, mood…
* Behavior – observable actions
* Cognition – thoughts or mental processes
The Triad! Aggression Example
Researcher interested in aggression might…
A: measurement of heart rate while people watch a violent movie B: measure how many times someone hits a punching bag after being insulted C: ask someone to report their thoughts after performing an aggressive activity
The Self-Concept (or self-knowledge)
Who are you? – the informational content we have about our selves “C” of the Triad
* constructing the self-concept
* four methods…
* the looking-glass self
* seeing friends’ or peoples’ reaction to what you are doing and going off of that * self-perception
* imagining you’re a stranger looking at your own behaviors and going off of what they dsee * vicarious self-perception
* approaching a new situation and thinking that you are similar with someone you look up to, so you act how you think they would act in that situation because you think you would be similar in that respect too Introspection – looking into the self to find out things
* Bargh, Chen, & Burrows (1996)
-the agreed folded is paper
-shirt tables his orange was
(control conditions/comparison group)
-the agreed wrinkled is paper
-shirt table his old was
A quick word on priming..
-Stimuli encountered in the word activates related concepts in the mind -Seeing snow activates information about ‘snow’ in the mind...
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