%Part of Telecommunication simulations course, Spring 2006 %Harri Saarnisaari, CWC

%We simulate uncoded BER of BPSK modulated data as a function of SNR %-in an AWGN channel %-in a Rayleigh fading channel %-in an AWGN channel when direct sequence spreading is used

%and compare results to the theoretical ones.
%We assume coherent receiver and perfect synchronization. ------------------------------------------------%set used SNR values %SNR (Eb/No) values in decibels SNR=[0:2:14]'; %column vector %SNR in linear scale snr=10.^(SNR/10); ------------------------------------------------%we create initial zero vectors for BER BER1=zeros(length(SNR),1); BER2=BER1; BER3=BER1; -----------------------------------------------

%we need a DS-code, we create a random, complex one, length Nc %elements +-1 +- j*1 Nc=32; %note that all parameters are defined as variables %their change afterwards is easy %(no need to change it every place, just once) ds=(2*round(rand(Nc,1))-1)+j*(2*round(rand(Nc,1))1); %ds-code %plot the ds signal plot([real(ds) imag(ds)]), axis([0 Nc -1.1 1.1]) title('real and imaginary parts of DS code'), legend('real','imag'),pause -------------------------------------------------%we use symbol energy normalized to 1 %thus, DS energy is normalized to 1 (it is a pulse waveform) ds=ds/norm(ds); %check this ds_energy=norm(ds)^2,pause (NOTE: normalization is a usual trick) -------------------------------------------------%Monte Carlo loop starts here %some initial values %totally Nmax symbols Nmax=1000; %maximum number of iterations Nerr=100; %minimum number of errors for k=1:length(SNR), %we do MC trials for each SNR for l=1:Nmax, %MC loop

-------------------------------------------------

%DATA %we create data as vectors of length Ns symbols %and thus use MATLAB's vector processing capabilities %in addition to for loops (since too long vectors are problems %to some versions of MATLAB) Ns=100; data=2*round(rand(Ns,1))-1; %data is random and...

...following websites address the subject of passive and active voices in technical writing.
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_actpass.html
http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/passivevoice.html
Avoid writing in past tense. Write in present tense unless discussing results reported in earlier papers. Use consistent tense throughout the paper.
Do not use contractions such as “don’t,” “can’t,” “won’t,” or “couldn’t.”
Avoid using footnotes.
Explain abbreviations before use. Expand all acronyms on first use.
Numbers ten or less are spelled out: "It consists of three fields", not "3 fields".
Be sure to proofread and carefully check spelling and grammar.
Here are some links to technical report writing guidelines, tips, and example reports.
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/documents/ce-trpt/
4. Text Sections and Headings
At least one paragraph of text should follow a main heading before a sub-heading occurs.
4.1 Text Sections and Headings
Text should be organized into sections and subsections, with an Introduction and a Conclusions section being advisable. A single line should separate paragraphs; no indentation should be used. Font guidelines are as follows:
Section Headings: Numbered, 14 point, bold, Upper and Lower Case, left-justified; leave one blank line above only.
Section Sub-headings: Numbered, 12 point, bold, Upper and Lower Case, left-justified; leave one blank line above only. If...

...System Simulation in Matlab/Simulink
Exercise 1: Matlab part
1) Plot the function yx=2∙x-x2+sin(2∙x)∙cos(x)
function problem1 (x)
y=2.*x-x.^2+sin(2.*x).*cos(x)
plot(x,y,'r')
end
2) Print n! from n=2 to 20
function problem2
for k=2:20
n=factorial(k)
end
3) Make a function that calculates RSS for a give vector.
function [rss]=problem3(a)
rss=sqrt(a*a');
end
4) Make a function that check to see if a number is a prime.
function problem4(n)
flag=0;
for k=[2:1:(n/2)]
a=rem(n,k);
if a==0
flag=1;
end
end
if flag==1
disp ('Number is not prime');
else
disp('Number is prime');
end
5) Calculate a 3-degree nominal to fit the following column.
M=[-0.447,1.978,3.11,5.25,5.02,4.66,4.01,4.58,3.45,5.35,9.22]
Plot the curve of the nomial with the discrete points in the same graph.
m=[-0.447,1.978,3.11,5.25,5.02,4.66,4.01,4.58,3.45,5.35,9.22];
x1=1:numel(m);
p=polyfit(x1,m,3);
x2=0:0.01:(numel(m)+1);
f=polyval(p,x2);
plot(x1,m,'ko',x2,f,'r-')
legend('n column','3-degNom','location','Best')
grid on
6) Plot the following function as follow.
Rasx=20+x12+x22-10(cos2πx1+cos2πx2)
x1 and x2 are from 0 to 4.
x=0:0.05:4;
y=0:0.05:4;
[x,y]=meshgrid(x,y);
z=20+x.*x+y.*y-10*(cos(2*pi*x)+cos(2*pi*y))
surf(x,y,z)
grid on
7) Given the matrix N and P as follow,
N=124736278123179324191347 P=23193829125849228923414913362248
Please calculate the N+P, N-P,...

...
1. What did you observe in inventory and back order levels when you play the game in uncoordinated and coordinated modes? What are the underlying reasons for the problems associated with uncoordinated decision-making? Based on the results you found in the previous part, list the potential benefits of coordination. (max 0.75 page)
2. What are the steps companies can take in order to reduce the problems associated with uncoordinated decision-making? Discuss also the potential implementation issues related to each of these steps. (max 0.75 page)
1. The inventory and backorders increased for every participant in the supply chain except for the backorder of the retailer in coordinated modes. The retailer had an average backorder of 22.31 throughout the uncoordinated mode and 22 in the coordinated mode. The underlying reason for the problem associated with uncoordinated decision-making is essentially the lack of communication between different participants and the demand uncertainty that existed throughout the game. Moreover, misperception of feedback and time delays within the uncoordinated mode, caused the limited quality in decision making. Furthermore, one may identify perceived risk of individual players' bounded rationality as one of the underlying reasons that had impact on the buildup of backorders. In addition to this, a prevalent issue throughout the first 18 weeks was panic ordering reactions after unmet demand, which consequently...

...SIMULATION
• WHAT is Simulation ?
• WHY is Simulation required ?
• HOW is Simulation applied ?
• WHERE is Simulation used ?
DEFINITION
• Simulation is a representation of reality through the use of model or
other device, which will react in the same manner as reality under a
given set of conditions.
• Simulation is the use of system model that has the designed
characteristic of reality in order to produce the essence of actual
operation.
• According to Donald G. Malcolm, simulation model may be defined
as one which depicts the working of a large scale system of men,
machines, materials and information operating over a period of time
in a simulated environment of the actual real world conditions.
NEED FOR SIMULATION
• Many real world problems which cannot be represented by a
mathematical model.
• Tool for tackling the complicated problem of managerial decisionmaking.
• Utilizes a computerized model.
• To represent actual decision-making under conditions of uncertainty
for evaluating alternative courses of action based upon facts and
assumptions.
MONTE CARLO TECHNIQUE
STEPS:
1. Setting up a probability distribution for variables to be analyzed.
2. Building a cumulative probability distribution for each random
variable.
3. Generate random numbers .
4. Conduct the simulation experiment by means of...

...MATLAB BEGINNER’S GUIDE
0
About MATLABMATLAB is an interactive software which has been used recently in various areas of engineering and scientific applications. It is not a computer language in the normal sense but it does most of the work of a computer language. Writing a computer code is not a straightforward job, typically boring and time consuming for beginners. One attractive aspect of MATLAB is that it is relatively easy to learn. It is written on an intuitive basis and it does not require in-depth knowledge of operational principles of computer programming like compiling and linking in most other programming languages. This could be regarded as a disadvantage since it prevents users from understanding the basic principles in computer programming. The interactive mode of MATLAB may reduce computational speed in some applications. The power of MATLAB is represented by the length and simplicity of the code. For example, one page of MATLAB code may be equivalent to many pages of other computer language source codes. Numerical calculation in MATLAB uses collections of well-written scientific/mathematical subroutines such as LINPACK and EISPACK. MATLAB provides Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as three-dimensional graphical animation. In general, MATLAB is a useful tool for vector and matrix manipulations....

...2014-2015
Structure of EG-264
• Two components
– MATLAB – Revision, Numerical Integration, Root
Finding
• Dr Mike Clee
• Lectures – Weeks 2-4, Labs – Weeks 3-5
• 50% 1 assignment
– CAD – Solidworks
• Dr Chengyuan Wang
• Lectures Weeks 5-6, Labs – Weeks 6-12
• 50% – 1 assignments
Semester 1, 2014-2015
General Information
• MATLAB lab slots
– There will be demonstrators in each lab to help with MATLAB
worksheets
– Each student has the opportunity to complete the assignment during
the lab sessions
– Remember - MATLAB labs will be held between Week 3 and Week 5
this is where help will be available.
• Every year, over 40% of level-3 research projects involve the use
of MATLAB
– The only way to master MATLAB is to practice!
– Revision worksheets are available on Blackboard for practice in your
own time during weeks 3-5
– Should also put the examples from the lecture notes into MATLAB
– Try to understand what each command is doing
Semester 1, 2014-2015
Assessment – MATLAB 1 component
• You will be asked to submit your MATLAB solutions
to specific problems
– Worth 50% of total marks for the module
– Assignment will be made available on Blackboard this
week ready for labs next week
– Deadline for Submission – Friday 31st October 2014
Semester 1, 2014-2015
Academic Honesty
• Read sections on unfair practice and plagiarism in...

...Ethnomusicology as it emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century, practiced by people such as Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, Vinko Zganec, Franjo Ksaver, Carl Stumpf, Erich von Hornbostel, Curt Sachsand Alexander J. Ellis, tended to focus on non-European music of an oral tradition, but in more recent years the field has expanded to embrace all musical styles from all parts of the world.
Ethnomusicologists apply theories and methods from cultural anthropology as well as other disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists examining music as an aspect of a culture. A well-known example of such work is Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies. Another example is Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the music of the Indians of Northern California [2]. Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who studied the music and society of the Suya people inMato Grosso, Brazil [3].
_____________________________________________________________________
2.1 Introduction
Social mobilization is the primary step of community development for recovery from conflicts and disasters. It allows people to think and understand their situation and to organize and initiate action for their recovery with their own initiative and creativity. Through mobilization,...

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