English Grades 10 - 12
Home language Fist Additional Language Second Additional Language
CONTENTS TYPE OF TEXT 1. Introduction 2. Process writing 3. Essays: Kinds of essays 3.1. Narrative essay 3.2. Descriptive essay 3.3 Expository essay 3.4 Argumentative essay 3.5. Discursive essay 3.6. Reflective essay 4. Transactional Writing 4.1 Longer Transactional Texts 4.1.1. Official letter 4.1.2. Friendly letter 4.1.3. Internal Memorandum 4.1.4. Writing a short article 4.1.5. Agenda and minutes of the meeting 4.1.6. Speech 4.1.7. Dialogue 4.1.8. Interview 4.1.9. Review 4.1.10. Newspaper article 4.1.11. Magazine article 4.1.12. Newspaper column 4.1.13. Curriculum Vitae (CV) 4.1.14. Obituary 4.1.15. Brochure 4.1.16 Editorial 9 11 12 15 15 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 PAGE 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9
4.2. Shorter Transactional Texts 4.2.1. Invitation 4.2.2. Diary 4.2.3. Post card 4.2.4. Direction 4.2.5. Instructions 4.2.6. Advertisement 4.2.7. Flyer 4.2.8. Poster 4.2.9. Filling in a form 4.2.10. Writing an email 4.2.11. Sending a Fax
30 30 31 32 32 34 34 35 36 38 38 40
The purpose of this guideline is to briefly guide teachers and learners on the aspects of writing and presenting. Furthermore, the guideline presents and shares information with regards to producing various texts and their uses. This will enable learners to attain and successfully demonstrate Learning Outcome 3 (LO 3), which aims to ensure that ‘The learner is able to write and present for a wide range of purposes and audiences using conventions and formats appropriate to diverse contexts.’ This guideline may be used by teachers and learners of English Home, First and Second Additional Languages. The document will also enable learners to prepare for the Writing Paper (Paper 3) which requires learners to choose and write three of the various writing texts dealt with during the course of the year.
Writing and designing texts is a process and learners need the opportunity to put this process into practice. They should: • • • • • • • decide on the purpose and audience of a text to be written and/or designed; brainstorm ideas using, for example mind maps, flow charts or lists; consult relevant sources, select relevant information and organise ideas; produce a first draft which takes into account purpose, audience, topic and genre; read drafts critically and get feedback from others (classmates); edit and proofread the draft; produce a well-designed final version.
Note! ● ● Learners should write every day. Learners should often be given the opportunity to write freely without an assessment requirement. In more formal writing, teachers are advised to assess a particular skill or sub-skill being dealt with during that particular stage of the process. For example, all language skills need not be addressed during each step of the process. Peers should also learn to edit one another’s work as this interaction is an important part of the process of writing and improves own and other’s awareness of the process. An important aspect of this Learning Outcome is the presentation of written work. It can be shared with peers, teachers, the school as a whole, parents and/or a wider range of stakeholders. The learner should take pride in a rounded, complete product. Learners should be informed about the characteristics and requirements of different kinds of creative texts. A short description of the kinds of writing texts that learners are required to produce is provided below.
An essay is an extended piece of writing, in which a writer expresses his/ her point of view on the topic given. The length of texts ranges from: • • • 200 – 250 words for English Second Additional Language; 250 – 300 words for English First Additional Language; and, 400 – 450 words for English Home Language.
An essay should have...