Flow Chart of Presidential Elections & Political Parties
Although George Washington and other founding fathers viewed political parties (factions) as dangerous, political parties out of power helps to strengthen democracy by being at times the "antithesis" of the party in power. Knowing what the issues were for each of the elections will serve as a good review as well as a good framework on viewing the American political tradition. Use the following flow chart to tell what were the issues that surrounded each presidential election from 1792-1900. In doing this assignment research what each opposing side offered or appealed to. What was the difference in the election if it was close? How and why did political parties form for each of the elections. Answers should be brief, no more than 3 to 4 sentences for each side of the election. Study the flow chart before you begin and before you email me that it is confusing, b/c at first it is confusing, but after you study it and look at the elections and issues it should start to make more sense. At times there is more than two parties, such as the elections of 1856 &1860, in that case do not forget to mention the smaller parties also. Make 1 illustration for each election that shows what you think is the most important point of the election.
This is the model that you should follow. Each election should have these 3 components. The opposing sides and the eventual winner.
Here is an example of how this works. During the Revolutionary Period there were two sides, Patriots and Tories.
Patriots wanted independence
Tories wanted to remain loyal to the crown
many were Congregationalist
most Tories were Anglican
The Patriots won, so it was the Anti-federalist who won out (why anti-federalist? - remember they were against centralized authority such as the one that they broke away from, remember also that the first gov't was one under the Articles of Confederation, that kept the central gov't deliberately weak.)
As the United States gained their independence two factions formed the Federalist and the Anti-Federalist.
small yeoman farmers
feared the power of big gov't
feared the unruly mob of
strong central state
Here is a clue for the next set: In the battle for the ratification of the Constitution the Federalist led by Hamilton and Madison dueled with Jefferson and Mason, and as we saw the Constitution was ratified, therefore the Constitution and its supporters the Federalist win out and are in the down/green arrow. The losers, the Anti-federalist, don't go away but reform into what became the Democratic Republicans. What is missing here is the election of 1796 where Adams defeats Jefferson, so there should be another Federalist vs Demo. Republicans w/ the Federalist winning out. Again use this as your guideline. Make sure to fill in the appropriate dates, candidates and issues.
The patriots were the ones challenging English rule, declaring independence, and taking up armed rebellion against the King. The Tories provided some resistance against Patriot actions, but had little part in starting the war. Patriots were the colonists who wanted to separate from England to form an independent nation. Loyalists were those colonists who wanted to remain loyal to Britian and the King. A primary concern was that cutting ties to the "mother country" could result in a disintegration of decent society. They feared that "democracy" meant the same thing as rule by the mob and that many people (like immigrants from countries they didn't much care for or like poor and/or uneducated people) were not fit to make political decisions (or even to vote). Loyalists were also...
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