Science of Nutrition

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Chapter 1: The Science of Nutrition

Fact or Fiction?
 Eliminating all fat from the diet will improve

health.
 Avoiding carbohydrates will lead to weight

loss.

 Protein is the most important nutrient.  As long as you take a vitamin and mineral pill each day

you don’t have to worry about eating healthy.

 Our genes determine our weight.

Superfoods?
Example: WebMd
 Low fat or    

Example: Be Well Buzz:
 Goji Berries







fat-free plain yogurt Eggs Nuts Kiwis Quinoa Beans Salmon Sweet potatoes Berries

 Acai Berries
 Cacao

 Maca Root

http://www.bewellbuzz.com/superfoods/16-superfoods-you-should-know-about-part-1/

Low-Carb Diet
1 slice whole wheat bread: 22 g 1 banana 27 g 1 medium potato 33 g 1 cup cooked pasta 43 g 1 apple 19 g 1 can soda 35 g 20 -

Why study nutrition?
Over the last two decades:
 Percentage of obese adults doubled (33 %)  Percentage of overweight children doubled (16 %)  Percentage of overweight adolescents tripled (16%)

Life Expectancy

Leading Causes of Death in 1997 and 1900

Leading causes of death
Major health problems are largely causes by poor diet

How are genetic traits passed from one generation to another?

The Epigenome
The DNA sequence (genome) does not change and is passed on to the next generation. But: The access to the DNA changes biochemically and can be passed on to the next generation.

DNA Methylation Methyl groups added to certain DNA bases represses gene activity

Histone Modification Molecules attached to histone tails alter DNA activity.

Genes and Nutrition
Genes Lifestyle

Nutrition related diseases

Nutrition

Consequences:
 We have control over our DNA.
 Diet
 Exercise

 Control can be passed on to the next

generations.

Nutrigenomics
How nutrition effects gene expression and

stability.
Food stimulates short-term gene expression.
 Vitamins and minerals can stabilize or

destabilize DNA.
 High

intake of biotin, riboflavin destabilize  High intake of vitamin E, retinol, calcium stabilize  Impaired intake of folate, B6 induces DNA breaks

How genetics effects nutrient utilization.

Systems Biology Approach
How all components of a biologic system interact over time under varying conditions.

 Group of scientist with varying expertise

collaborate.
 Examples: Nutrigenomics, proteomics,

metabolomics

Assess your Risk
High Risk:  More then one first degree relative with certain condition  Condition occurs before

age 50 – 60 years
 Use family tree to asses your own

risk

Diabetes, obesity, certain cancers, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension

NOVA: Epigenetics
 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3411/02.h

tml
 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/video/341

1/w02-350.html

Nutrition
 The Science of food  Action, interaction and balance of nutrients in

relationship to health and disease
 Process of ingestion, digestion, absorption,

transport, utilization and excretion of food substances

Nutrients
 Nourishing substances  6 classes of nutrients :

Carbohydrates Lipids Protein

Vitamins Minerals Water

Essential Nutrients
 Specific biological function.  Removing from diet leads to decline in biological body

function.
 Adding to diet before permanent damage is done

restores biological body function . Example: Vitamin C, sodium, niacin, fluoride

Nonessential Nutrient
 Body is able to make these in sufficient

amounts when they are needed.

 Humans do not need to consume these.

Example: Cholesterol

Functional Categories
Provide Energy Most carbohydrates Proteins Promote Growth and Development Proteins Lipids Regulate Body Processes Proteins Some lipids

Most lipids

Some vitamins
Some minerals Water

Some vitamins
Some minerals Water

Macronutrients vs. Micronutrients

Carbohydrates
 Energy yield: 4 kcal/g
...
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