Science- Grade10 Chemistry Notes

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Periodic Table:
* Mass Number = protons + neutrons in the nucleus
* Atomic Number = number of protons in the nucleus
* Number of neutrons = mass number – atomic number

Example: Lithium (Li)
* # of protons + # of neutrons = mass #
* 3 + 4 = 6.9/ 7 * The atomic mass is the mean of all the isotopes of Lithium in nature; round the number

* Isotopes of a specific element have a varying number of neutrons * The number of neutrons do not affect the chemistry because they are not electrically active; neutral * Mendeleev organized the elements according to their atomic mass but today we organized them according to their atomic number * Staircase line separates the metals from the non-metals * Metals are shiny, conductive, malleable, react with acid solid * Non-metals are dull, brittle, insulators, don’t react with acid solid, liquid, or gas * Period: A set of repeating behaviours- same number of valence electrons * Group: A set of similar behaviours- same number of electron shells * Alkali Metals = first column

* Alkaline Earth Metals = second column
* Halogens = second last column
* Noble Gases = last column
* For metals; increasing reactivity to the left and downwards * For non-metals; increasing activity to the right and upwards

Atomic Structure:
* Orbit 1 = 2 Electrons max.
* Orbit 2 = 8 Electrons max.
* Orbit 3 = 8 Electrons max.
* Must fill inner orbits before moving to next level
* The electrons in the outer most energy orbit are called valence electrons * Valance shell contains the valence electrons

Ion:
* An ion is simply a regular atom that is charged
* It gets charged when electrons are gained or loss
* During a reaction, atoms prefer to look like their closest Noble Gas atom in their valence shell * The ionic charge is the charge of the atom with a full valence shell

Ionic Compounds:
* Ionic Compound: a compound composed of oppositely charged ions

Binary Ionic Compounds:
* Binary Ionic Compound: A compound composed of a metal cation and a non-metal cation

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds:
1. The first part of the name identifies the positive cation; therefore the metal 2. The second part of the name identifies the negative anion; therefore the non-metal 3. End the non-metal with the suffix ‘-ide’

* Subscripts do not affect the naming

Example: MgBr2
→ Magnesium Bromide

Determining Chemical Formula of Binary Ionic Compounds:
1. Identify the ions and their charges
2. Use the criss cross method of their charges
3. Use the subscripts to demonstrate the ratio of the ions * Do not write the subscript of one

Example: Aluminum Fluoride
Aluminum = Al+3, Fluoride = F-1
→ AlF3

Chemical Formulas and Naming Multivalent Metals:
* Multivalent metals have more than one charge listed on periodic table * Most common ones; Pb, Cu, Sn, Fe, Cr, Ni
* Use roman numerals to represent the charge of that element only when writing out name

Determining the Numeral of Multivalent Metals:
1. If there is a subscript on the non-metal element, multiply that subscript by the non-metal’s charge to get the roman numeral 2. If there is no subscript on the non-metal element, do reverse criss cross method to get the roman numeral

Example: SnS2
* Subscript of S is 2
* Charge of S is 2
* 2x2 = 4
* Therefore Tin (IV) Sulfide
Example: Cu3N
* No subscript for N
* Reverse criss cross method Cu1N3
* Therefore Copper (I) Nitrogen

Polyatomic Ions:
* Polyatomic Ion: An ion that is composed of more than one atom * Ternary Compound: A compound composed of three different elements

Rules for Naming Polyatomic Ions:
1. Determine the name of the first element (watch out for NH4+ Ammonium) 2. Name the second part; keep it as one chunk
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