Science and Society: Lecture Notes

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November 14, 2011 "We can do no great things; only small things with great love." The Practice of Science Science: ^ knowledge ^ systematic and orderly ^ classic - systematized and orderly body of knowledge - the GREEKS * Greeks - considered classical because they set the standards in Western civilization based on order and system ^ tragedy or comedy - only two plots - we've been trained to understand science in a neat and perfect way - normality- everything that fits into the system, anything else is abnormal - things will work only/given this and this. - rigid- it seems that there's only one correct answer - if you're just beginning to thing and you're tied up to this, you won't like it. This definition is restrictive. November 16, 2011 (photo-inset) what does this mean? Solids- molecules are more fixed, 0 degrees Kelvin - relative Projectile motion - parabolic curve that is defined by an equation - represents consistency FORMULA ONLY HAPPENED BECAUSE IF THE DEFINED ORDER affected by gravity - trajectory case Normal Science - natural science that is observed more regularly (commonly observed phenomenon) thus science is empirical (something that you can measure) - observed and verified - COLLECTION: consistent; coherent (no other observation that will contradict the fact); constructive (every finding is based on something that can lead to something else) * Anomalies - Hierarchy - in terms of scientific statements * simple observations - descriptions of the world * specific relationships - theories - statements of relationships only! Volume & temp = direct relationship * fundamental principles - referring to the natural laws (laws that explain or define natural phenomenon - principle of conservation) Paradigm - a model - model : theme, structures, proceedings Science - rational INQUIRY into nature * rational - logical/perspective - an agreed upon process that is acceptable at least to a culture * nature - physical world

Object of inquiry(nature)(measurable characteristics or knowable) Inquirer (the need to be rational-capacity to know/inquire) being rational "Independence" - go both ways; the object of inquiry distinguishes itself because it is OBJECTIVE. But whatever we do, we are part of the physical world, we are made of the same thing, so there is no such thing as unbiased. Methodology Scientific Method - used to know that the bias is controlled and minimized - this is where the rigidity comes in November 18, 2011 "Wag ka sumigaw puta" - Louie Science is the search for the objective truth. *Is social science research less objective? - the degree of detachment, differs. Social science has a more difficult time to detach from the object of inquiry. In terms of the measurements of the characteristics, social science doesn't know how to measure them yet. Not yet perfected. Natural sciences, weight volume or height are all measured perfectly. * it is how accurately we measure Science is a rational inquiry to nature. Scientific Methods Structured: systematic and orderly Unstructured: creative and intuitive * (Photo of a snake biting its tail and benzene ring) - the guy who came up with this dreamt it. - proves creativity * Creativity and intuitive comes in if you are observant enough. But it also requires the mind to have an output, do a theory and then a structured component that leads to validation and verifying. This in turn, reaches objectivity. "We are but a product of chance." Measurements of characteristics * parameters - length, width, height, mass, volume, light (expressed in wavelengths or frequency) * precision vs. accuracy * bias/error - intel-observer bias: conformity, intra-personal bias: not sure of yourself ^ the scientific method minimizes the bias by many many many repetitions. Things requires thousands of trials. (photo of a satellite, stopwatch, microscope, thermometer, etc.) technologies like this can also have factory error. Even a little. Degree of error differs. * Confounding error Reality / Test....
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