Review of Major Management Functions

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MODULE TWO

REVIEW OF MAJOR
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

1. Describe the components of the effective management
2. Give at least 5 principles of nursing management
3. Define planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
4. State the purposes and benefits of planning
5. Describe the phases of planning
6. Differentiate between strategic and operational planning 7. Describes the steps in strategic planning
8. Name the major element of directing
9. Name the important criteria in the delegation of responsibilities 10. Name and describe at least three techniques used in controlling

CONTENT OUTLINE

I. THE NATURE OF MANAGEMENT PROCESS
A. Principles of Management Process
B. Components of Management Process
II. PLANNING
A. The Nature of Planning
B. Purposes of Planning
C. Process of Planning
D. Types of Planning
III. ORGANIZING
A. Principles of Organizing
IV. DIRECTING
A. Activities Related to Directing
B. Selected Tasks of Nurse Managers-Supervisor
C. Leadership, Communication, Motivation
V. CONTROLLING
A. Principles of Controlling

I. THE NURSING MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Management has been defined as the process of getting work done through others. According to Fayol (in Swansburg, 1993):

“To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control. To foresee and provide means of examining the future and drawing up the plan of action. To organize means building up the dual structure, material, and human of the undertaking. To command means binding together, unifying and harmonizing all activity and effort. To control means seeing that everything occurs in conformity with established rule and expressed demand.”

A. The Principles of Management Process
Fayol listed the principles of management as follows:

* Division of Labor
* Authority
* Discipline
* Unity of Command
* Subordination of individual interests to the general interest * Centralization
* Scalar Chain

Nursing management is the process by which nurse managers work through others to achieve nursing organizational goals. The nurse manager’s task is to plan, organize, direct, and control available financial, material and human resources so as to provide the most effective care possible to groups of patients and their families. Swansburg (1993) identified thirteen general principles of nursing management as follows:

* Nursing management is planning.
* Nursing management is the effective use of time.
* Nursing management is decision making.
* Meeting patient’s nursing care needs is the business of the nurse manager. * Nursing management is the formulation and achievement of social goals. * Nursing management is organizing.
* Nursing management denotes a function, social position or rank, discipline and a field of study. * Nursing management is the active organ of the division of nursing, of the organization, and of society in which it functions. * Organizational cultures reflect values and beliefs.

* Nursing management is directing and leading.
* A well-managed division of nursing motivates employees to perform satisfactorily. * Nursing management is efficient communication.
* Nursing management is controlling or evaluating.

B. Component of Effective Management

Tappen identified the components of effective management as follows:

* Leadership
* Planning
* Direction
* Monitoring
* Recognition
* Development
* Representation

Management Functions Identified

Henri Fayol (1925) first identified the management functions and briefly described below:

1. Planning encompasses determining philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures and rules; carrying out long- and short-range projections; determining a fiscal course of action; and managing planned change. 2. Organizing...
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