In Psychology, you will only get penalised for NOT ASKING QUESTIONS. Paper 1 = Core material 50% of final grade
Section A – 53 %
Section B – 47%
A – Knowledge & Comprehension
B – Evidence of critical thinking: application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation C – Organisation (Structure)
20 mins + 5 mins planning for each of SAQs questions
50 mins for LAQ question CHOOSING and planning
10 mins for spellcheck
Paper 2 = 25% of final grade
Two 22 marks LAQs. 5 Optional topics are available, with 3 LAQs per topic. Strategy 2 marks every 5 mins (44 marks in 120 mins)
Derren Brown programs for A-levels Psychology courses
Revision: do some memory exercises
Names remembering – emotional relevance. Boucheard did something on intelligence (therefore – Bouchard = intelligence). Be creative; make your own way to remember names. Dates remembering – link them to birthdays and dates of the events you can remember. How to apply this: Think about everyday attributions. Psychology is all around us! Look up ‘logical fallacies’ to improve your critical thinking skills for psychological study analysis. Society < – > Individual (behaviour)
The Biological Level of Analysis
Complete definition of psychology:
Psychology is a knowledge field within the human sciences which “indirectly” analyses intangible mental processes via behavioural observation. These mental processes are dependent on biological factors (biological/nurture) and environmental factors (sociocultural/nature). What does level of analysis (LOA) mean?
There are 3 levels of analyses: Biological, Cognitive and Sociocultural 1. Use a holistic approach (LOA-balanced argument) by suggesting that a phenomenon can be discussed from multiple factors from LOAs, avoiding reductionism. 2. Use an interactionist approach to show how biological aetiology (hormonal disequilibrium) alone can cause cognitive and sociocultural psychological symptoms. 3. Underlined words should be in your exam somewhere.
“Ones you’ve learned the basics you can apply them to anything you like.” (Liam O’Leary, 2012) Illustrating the Interactionist approach
Hubel and Weisel (1965): Rats experiment. There are 3 rats in a cage with toys and 3 in the one without. Killed them, looked at their brains. The ones who died playing with toys had larger cerebral volume => better brain functioning as a result of environment. Demonstrates how the environment can change biological aspects. A Crucial Perspective
See Diagram 1
BLOA PRINCIPLE 1 Fundamentals:
Nature vs. Nurture aetiological debate.
The nature side of the debate largely takes the biological perspective: behavioural traits are innate, brought about by genes. The nurture side of the debate looks at socio-cultural factors: environment, culture… BLOA PRINCIPLE 1 Application
1. Genes are the precursors of all known biological correlates of behaviour. 2. The Diathesis-Stress Model of MDD:
Genetic predisposition +traumatic childhood – MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) Empirical
1. Twin Studies. Larger MZT (monozygotic (identical) twins (raised) together) proportion than DZT (dizygotic (non-identical) twins (raised) together) for every psychological condition. I.Q. concordance rates => (Bouchard et at., 1990) 2. Family Studies. Parent-child I.Q. => (Plomin et at., 1997) 3. Adoption Studies. MZA Schizophrenia => (Heston et at., 1996) 4. Behavioural Genomics. 5-HT allele duplication on MDD => (Caspi et at., 2003)
BLOA PRINCIPLE 1 Empirical Studies
Twin Study examples; (Bouchard et at., 1990)
Longitudinal I.Q. study between MZT and MZA. Cross-cultural involving intelligence tests and interviews. Same person tasted twice – 87%
MZT – 86%
MZA – 76%
Determined that IQ heritability was 70% genetic and 30% environmental Sample bias – recruited through newspaper.
Ethical concerns about how twins raised apart were brought together. Presumption that twins raised apart had...