Psychology – Adolescence and Adulthood

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Psychology – Adolescence and Adulthood
Adolescence – a transition period from childhood to adult hood, extending from puberty to adulthood Physical Development
1) Puberty: a period of sexual maturation during which one first becomes capable of reproducing a) Primary Sex Organs develop
* Body structures that make sexual reproduction possible, e.g. ovaries, testes, penis b) Secondary Sex Organs develop
* Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, e.g. enlarged breasts, hips, facial hair, deepened voice * Landmarks of Puberty:
a) Girls
* Breast development (age 10)
* Menarche (age 12)
* Memorable event; positive event (now a woman), mixture of feelings (excitement, embarrassment, apprehension and pride) b) Boys
* First ejaculation (age 14)
* Memorable event (most boys can recall their first ejaculation) * Usually occurs as a nocturnal emission(wet dream)

* Timing of Puberty and Psychological Consequences
* Sequence of physical changes in puberty is more predictable than their timing * Variations may have psychological consequences
a) Girls – Negative Effect
* Is larger, taller
* As a result:
* Object of sexual attention
* Have sex at an earlier age
* More attention
* Teased
* Lower grades
b) Boys – Positive Effect
* Are stronger
* More athletic
* As a result:
* More popular
* Self-assured
* Independent
Cognitive Development:
1) Developing reasoning power
* Formal Operations Stage (Piaget – 4th)
* Abstract reasoning
* Deduce consequences
* Reason hypothetically
* Spot hypocrisy
2) Developing morality – Kohlberg
* Refers to thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong * Kohlberg posed moral dilemmas to children, adolescents and adults * Not interested in one’ moral position, but their reasons for their stance * Morality depends on cognitive stage of development

* Kohlberg – as we develop, we...
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