PSY 3010 Lecture Notes
Friday, August 24, 2012
Monday, August 27, 2012
Evidence-Based Practice: decision making when making a selection should be at the intersection of the three things—best available research evidence, client/population characteristics, state, needs values and preferences AND resources including practitioner expertise. Even if something is backed up by research, it does not mean it will meet the population of your class if the research was done on different subjects. Two main types of research that count for Evidence Based Practice—Qualitative vs. Quantitative. Quantitative research has to do with numbers and Qualitative has to deal with words. They also differ in these five areas:—Objective/purpose—qualitative research would be asking people how something feels to them, collecting words about how something feels, quantitative would be collecting number data on something by checking things like scores or a number scale on how the feel about something. Data collection—the difference lies in how you collect the data, quantitative will be much faster. Data Analysis—When using Qualitative you look for things like themes, things like reward structure, in quantitative you come up with a hypothesis before collecting the data then discover if you’re right after collecting the data. Outcome—the outcome of Qualitative research will give you ideas to do what next, helps you come up with ideas for quantitative research. However it goes both ways, after issuing a survey to 500 kids, then you can interview some why they chose what. There is somewhat of a war between which one is better, most people like qualitative research in education, psychology people usually like more quantitative research. There is a compromise which is called mixed methods, you try to use both, maybe start with quantitative to see what programs are good, the use qualitative to interview a smaller population about why they chose what they chose, or the other way around, both are valid, they just answer different kinds of questions. Quantitative Research—Three types of Quantitative—Descriptive which is describing a phenomenon with words, describing the phenomenon in words not numbers. Correlational is finding out if there is a co-relation between two things, do something like give out a bullying survey and a self-esteem survey and see if there is any correlation between the data. Experimental research is trying to find a cause behind something; you can manipulate a variable to figure it out. Ex—take a group of kids and inflate their self-esteem, and see if they are bullied less than kids who have lower self-esteem and then draw a conclusion that lower self-esteem causes bullying. Correlational Research—can differ on two levels, in terms of their magnitude and direction. Direction—they can be positive or negative, positive means as one variable increases the other increases as well ex. More and more violent TV makes someone more aggressive, negative correlation—as one variable increases the other decreases, as someone optimism increases their sickness decreases. Magnitude—as a correlation gets nearer to positive or negative 1, the correlation is stronger, if a correlation is .9 than it is very correlated. Correlation does not equal causation! Just because you know that there is a relationship between two things does not mean one thing caused the other. Experiments—Treatment/Intervention groups and Control groups. Reading power comes along and a principal tells one teacher to use it, and the other teacher to keep teaching the same methods and compare results at the end of the year. Random assignment is ideal, but it is not very practical, but they would provide better results. Statistics are a way to deal with some of the weird variables that exist in experimental results, such as if you are comparing two classes exam scores, and one class has higher average, but the other class had more better grades and just a few outliers that...
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