Passed to Sir Francisco
Passed by Gussie Yvonne Dolloso
Manuel A. Roxas
In 1948, Roxas declared amnesty for those arrested for collaborating with the Japanese during World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. He accepted the offer of the Americans regarding the two laws enacted namely the Bell Trade Act and the War Damage act, which continued the existing free trade between the Philippines and the United States. These laws provided financial aid worth millions of pesos to begin the rehabilitation of our country.
His six years as president were marked by notable post-war reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States He created the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration (ACCFA) to facilitate the financial help extended to the farmers. He also emphasized import substitution policy. He underscored the control on importation to solve the trade deficit and to achieve positive balance of trade. He reported activities of the government to the people through radio broadcasts so that the people will know what is going on in the country and what the programs of the government are. He was able to bring the government closer to the people.
As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, which aimed to defend South East Asia, South Asia and the South-western Pacific from communism. He was also known for his integrity and strength of character. During his term, he made Malacañang Palace literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. He improved the lives of the people in the barrios. He constructed bridges, roads, and irrigations. He started to solve the problem on land through the Land Reform Act of 1955; he gave emphasis on the welfare of the poor farmers who desired to own agricultural land. Carlos P. Garcia
During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. He also exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. He gave priority to Filipino industries in the distribution of resources. He supported the Retail Nationalization Trade Act. He revived the Filipino culture by giving recognition to the outstanding contributions of Filipino artists, scientists, writers, musicians, historians and inventors.
During his presidency, the Philippines enjoyed prosperity and was the second most developed country in the Asian region, next only to Japan and ahead of the future tiger economies of Asia such as Singapore, Taiwan, and Korea. He allowed the Philippine peso to float on the free currency exchange market. He started the abolition of tenancy and accompanying land reform program in the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 which underscored his endeavour to fight mass poverty. He established the Land Bank of the Philippines.
Ferdinand E. Marcos
During his first term he had made progress in agriculture, industry, and education. Yet his administration was troubled by increasing student demonstrations and violent urban-guerrilla activities. Initially, he had a good record as president and the Filipinos expected him to be one of the best. However, conditions changed in later years and his popularity with the people started diminishing. He implemented a number of economic programs. These programs helped the country to enjoy the period of economic...