Plant Layout

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UNIT 02: PLANT LAYOUT
Definition Plant Layout involves the allocation of space and the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized. It includes the arrangement and location of work centres and various service centres like inspection, storage and shipping within the factory building. Characteristics of an Efficient Layout 1. Smooth flow of production – Raw materials and workers have access to each machine without any difficulty and delay. 2. Maximum utilization of available space 3. Minimum handling – Product of one operation may pass on to the next operation with minimum handling, thus reducing wastage of raw materials and labour hours. 4. Provides better working conditions – Facilities such as water, ventilation, retiring rooms etc., to safeguard the health of workers. 5. Flexibility – capable of incorporating new equipment to meet technological progress or increased production or to eliminate waste. 6. Facilitates supervision and control 7. Provision of safety Reorganization of existing Layout 1. Variation in the level of demand 2. Change in the location of the product markets 3. Change in style and obsolescence or failure of existing equipment Objectives of Plant Layout 1. Economy in material handling – raw materials, work-in-progress and finished stock 2. Optimum utilization of resources – men, materials, equipment and space 3. Better inventory control – Minimizing work-in-progress and maximizing inventory turnover 4. Good work flow – Minimizing delays and eliminating bottlenecks in the production system, thus avoiding accumulation of work at vital points 5. Efficient control – Efficient supervision and production control 6. Avoidance of changes – Frequent changes cause rise in cost of production 7. Safety – Elimination or atleast minimizing the chances of accidents 8. Flexibility – Meeting future changes and requirements Advantages of Good Layout 1. Extension of the process of specialization 2. Better working...
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