Philosophy Review Notes

Topics: Plato, Socrates, Ethics Pages: 9 (2397 words) Published: February 4, 2014
Philosophy Study Guide – Key Names/Concepts
Meaning of 6 Characteristics of Philosophy
-1. Fundamental – Types of issues are general, E.G. Truth/Morality/Foundations of Knowledge/Existence of God -2. Critical – Raises questions, basic questions
oRaises questions that answer with more questions
oSocrates in the apology compares himself to a fly buzzing around a lethargic horse -3. Integrative – Philosophy is not destructive
oConstructs theories of politics and Ethics – an array of Ideas oAttempts to build grand visions of human life
-4. Argumentative – Rational Analysis – Does not collect data – creates data oDifference between Science/Philosophy – Cant answer conceptual questions •EX. – What is the meaning of life?
-5. Reflective – Seeks knowledge for its own sake not to do something or make something oPhilosophy bakes no bread
oThis is the high ground reply – Seeks knowledge for its own sake oMiddle ground reply – Reflection continuous with practice oLow ground reply – Life & Death of 1 and 2 – ideas about rights/values of others -6. Historical – History of philosophy is essential part of doing philosophy. oTrue for all Humanities

Creates framework
Similarities/Difference between Philosophy and Theology
-Similarity – Both concerned with big fundamental questions oEG. – Existence of God, meaning of life
-Difference – Approach these questions from different perspectives: Reason and Revelation oSystematic Theology – parasitic with respect to philosophy. The reverse is not the case oBoth philosophy and Theology are about grand systems of ideas; but theology is almost always bound up with religion: ways of living, practices -In the East – Daoism – Both Philosophy/Theology same

-In the West – Different
oClassics can be accepted/denied
oAncient Writing (sacred) (EG. The bible) (theology) – Only accepted 6 Sub-Disciplines of Philosophy
-1. Epistemology – Theory of study of Knowledge
-2. Metaphysics – Basic structure in nature of all that exists -3. Ethics - What is morally right and wrong
-4. Logic – Method of Distinguishing from good and Bad Arguments -5. Philosophy of Studies
-6. Historical Studies
Golden Age/Classical Age of Ancient Greece
-Also known as Periclean age, 480-431 B.C.
-Socrates born in 469 B.C. at beginning
-Began after Greeks defeat Persians
oNever had political unity; had federation of over 150 city-states -Plato Born in 428 B.C. at the end of the Golden Age
-Golden Side of the Golden Age
oGovernment supports for widows and orphans
System of social welfare
oHigh literacy rate
oBuilding Program
The Parthenon
oGreatest Achievement – Democracy
Direct participatory rather then representative
-Play writes – Euripides, Aristophanes, Sophocles
-Historians – Thucydides, Herodotus, Xenophon
-Democratic form of Government
oInitiated by Cleisthenes in 508 B.C.
oExcluded women, slaves, the allies of Athens
o40,000 adult males eligible to vote
-Shitty side of Golden Age
oSlaves make up 1/3 population
oWomen were not educated/less opportunities
-Growing Tension between Athens and Sparta
Peloponnesian War
-Between Athens vs Sparta – 431-404 B.C.
oAthens Lost
-Greece was weak after the war
Hellenistic Age – 338 B.C. – 200 A.D.
-Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece
oHe was later assassinated in 336 B.C.
oAlexander the Great took over
He helped spread Greek culture/language through out the world The 3 Greek Temple Styles/Perceptual Compensation
-The perceptual compensation explains of the deviations from strict proportionality in the Parthenon -3 Greek Styles – Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
-Born in 470/69 B.C.
-Married Xanthrope and had 3 sons
-Served as hoplite – food solider – in the Peloponnesian War -Critical of others in his profession
oNamed them Sophists – good at argueing, but do not have facts/truths oMost Famous Student – Plato
-Knowledge is important for virtue;...
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