Philosophy

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Philosophy comes from the Greek roots meaning “the love of wisdom.”
Philosophers are persons who have a compelling need to pursue wisdom. Since the beginning of time, wise man and women have dedicated themselves to asking “Big Questions”.
Depending on the questions, there are various areas of philosophy including metaphysics, epistemological, axiology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, social philosophy, and logic.

Homework
Make a “Creative” representation of someone (fictional or real) you consider a wise person. Be prepared to present it in class and explain what characteristics make a person wise.

Archetypes
Archetypes are basic images that represent our conception of the essence of a certain kind of person.... usually considered to be shared by all of humanity throughout time. Philosophical archetypes are philosophers who express an original or influential point of view in a way that significantly affects subsequent philosophers and non-philosophers. Western philosophy has been dominated by males of European ancestry.

Relativism-
Relativism is the belief that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer. In other words, absolute (universal) knowledge of the truth is impossible; “one opinion is as good as another”.

Philosophy week 2
Pre- Socratic philosophy:
Asian sages and the sage
The Sage
The sage is an archetypal fig. Who combines religious inspiration with a love of wisdom? Found in ancient Asia, they are the oldest philosophical archetypes, identifying happiness and teaching the good life. Asian cosmology is not based on empirical (numbers, data, statistics) or scientific evidence. It contends (argues) that everything is working harmoniously, following the Tao (Force or flow of energy in life), or the “path” or the “way” There is no separation between heaven and earth, divine and human, but is working together; all is one reality containing yin and yang. Yin represents earth, weakness, darkness, negative, and destruction. Yang represents heaven, strength, light, positive and construction. One cannot live without the other, keeping the universe in balance.

Think
Lao-tzu
Confucius
Siddhartha Gautama

The Sophists (Meaning Wise in Greek) First professional educators, Charged fee to teach. Argued that the difference between a good and bad argument is custom and individual preference, nothing is bad or good in nature. They argued for relativism, both cultural and individual.

Journal 3
Read pages 59-60
Reflect upon ways you have been a victim of ethnocentrism.
Reflect upon ways you are ethnocentric
Reflect ways America is ethnocentric. Since 911.

The Person
Socrates (470-399 B.C.E) was the first major western philosopher. He wrote no philosophy and what we know of him comes chiefly from his pupils Plato and Xenophon. Socrates challenged the sophists doctrines of relativism and moral realism he often taught that beauty and goodness determined by utility (If it serves a purpose)

His Teachings
Socrates is most famous for his style of philosophical inquiry known as the Socratic Method or dialectic. Education is supposed to draw knowledge out of you instead of riding with you like an empty vessel. Among his teachings, his most persistent command was know you. Believing an unexamined life was not worth living, he saw himself as a kind of “Physician of the soul.” He believed that the real person is not the body, but the physics-mind-soul.

Journal 5
Read the trial and death of Socrates on pages 110-115
How does death and his art of dying relate to his teachings

History
Plato was a member of the Athenian aristocracy and Socrates’s most favorite and important student Athenian democracy was irrational mob rule.
Founded famous academy to educate wise rulers

In Plato’s metaphysics, the highest level of reality consists of timeless “essences” called forms. Platonic forms are...
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