Unique characteristics of HOMOSAPIENS – propensity to treat ailments, physical and mental with medicine INTRODUCTION
* What is medicine?
MEDICINE- is a mixture of myth and science, folklore and demonstrated facts. * How are medicines prepared?
1. Collection of active ingredients and drugs
2. Processed: and
3. Prepared for incorporation into medicaments
SHANIDAR – oldest settlements, supports the contention that prehistoric people gathered plants for medicinal process. SHAMANS – tribal healers
* Prepare magical potions for cure
* In-charge of all supernatural things in tribe
* Diagnosis and treatment of chronic illness
* Compounding of remedies
According to primitive people, what is illness?
* Associated with bad spirits (supernatural). Treatment may be through the spell of sorcerers or with the aid of magical substances. Neanderthal man buried the dead in Shanidar cave. Cluster of flowers and herbs were placed (some valued for their medical properties).
What is a DRUG?
* a simple tool; and
* a special substance with supernatural powers
ONE OF HUMANITIES GREATEST ADVANCES:
CONCEPTS: HEALING and DISEASE
* to develop CIVILIZATION is required
* to flourish…tools are needed for rational medical therapy such as: writing, systems of exchange, and weights and measures.
BEFORE THE DAWN OF HISTORY
From beginnings as remote and simple as they came proud of:
PROFESSION OF PHARMACY
* Ancient man learned from instinct, from observation of birds and beast. Cool leaf to soothe and alleviate suffering. * By trial, man learned which served him best. He applied the knowledge & benefit of others. * By mouth, they spread the news & passed on.
Though cavemen’s methods were crude, many of today’s medicines spring from sources as simple & elementary as those which are within reach of early man. THE PERIOD OF ANTIQUITY
Changes occurred when organized settlements arose in the great file valleys of the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Yellow and Yangtze (China), and Indus Rivers that influenced.
CONCEPTS OF DISEASE AND HEALING.
PHARMACY IN ANCIENT BABYLONIANS.
MESOPOTAMIA – land between Tigris and Euphrates.
* CRADLE OF CIVILIZATION.
Geographical location influences spread to and from India, Arabia, and Egypt. Who are the people? A (Assyrians), B(Babylonians), S (Sumerians) CLAY TABLETS – famous in ancient Babylonians, discovered at Nippur, 2100BC and is now at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia uses:
* for recording thoughts, deeds, and transactions.
* Source of earliest records of Pharmacy practice.
SUMERIANS COLLECTION OF PRESCRIPTION – earliest known medical text. METHODS OF HEALING DISEASE
* INCANTATION – sing spells.
* APPLICATION OF PLANTS or SUBSTANCES.
STEPS IN TREATING THE SICK
1. Description of the symptoms & write on clay tablets.
2. Prescription & description for compounding; and
3. Incantation to the gods
Examples of drug substances:
* Oils of cedar and cypress
* Poppy juice
* Olive oil + beer (oil shampoo)
* Warm oil for earache
SHAMPOO – comes from the Hindu word champoo means to massage or to knead which considered as sacred objects in early days. BABYLON – jewel of ancient Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA – cradle of civilization; provides the earliest known record of practice of the art of apothecary. Practitioners of healing of this era (about 2600BC) were priests, pharmacists, and physicians – all in one.
PHARMACY IN ANCIENT EGYPT
IMHOTEP – architect & physician to the court of King Zoser, 2900BC * he wasn’t defied until 2500 years after his death
* H (Horus) – god of sky, moon, & life (falcon head).
* I (Isis) - patron of nature and magic; protector of the dead * T (Thoth) – god and...