Features of civilization:
* WRITING (very important)
* social classes
At this time, all governments are monarchies. The king usually had divine and unquestionable power until the area over which he rules starts failing. Then people rebel. The earliest writing is in pictures, mostly caligraphy and such. The first to develop writing is most likely the Sumerians, with the invention of the Cunieform. Later, the Phoenicians created an alphabet. Social classes were first based on contribution to the society, and later based on wealth. At first, copper weapons existed. Later, the discovery of bronze, then iron gradually replaced these. Mesopotamia: Found along the Tigris & Euphrates rivers, the first to inhabit this land were the Sumerians. The Sumerians were the first to create irrigation systems, and spoke the Semetic language. They are the ones who invented the cunieform. Sumer was grouped into many city-states, which weakened Sumer to invasions, since not all of Sumer was a united front. The Akkadians, taking advantage of that, conquered Sumer, but continued most of their traditions. After a period of time, all of Sumer (or Akkadia) was united, with the city Babylon as the center capital. The area, now known as Babylonia, was ruled by a single king. This is when King Hammurabi decided to write the Hammurabi Laws. Later, the Assyrians, known for their brutality, came and conquered Mesopotamia. Egypt: Found along the Nile River, the Egyptians were the first to inhabit this area. The Egyptians had three kingdoms, or times of reign. In the old kingdom, most, if not all, of the pyramids were built, but later was found that it was too time consuming and costly. The middle kingdom is known for wars. This kingdom was marked by horrible/corrupt pharoahs, which lead to many conflicts. The last kingdom, known as the New Kingdom, is marked by Egypt opening its doors to trade, commerce, and invading others. The Nubians later come and take over Egypt, but almost all of Egypt's culture is kept. Indus River Valley: Found along the Indus River, this is the homeland of two of the first known cities, Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro. Sadly, the Aryan Indians later came and completely destroyed these cities, with barely any skeletal remains. Hinduism was founded here. China- Found mostly around the Huang He (Yellow River), the order of dynasties is the mythical Xia, then Shang, the first known inhabitants of the land, Zhou, and finally Qin, which is the most well known. The Qin dynasty is known for conquering and expanding China, and also the construction of the Great Wall and the Terracota Statues. Paleolithic vs. Neolithic
The Earliest skeletal remains are found in China, Africa, and Middle East Because of the climate/ soil, it is hard to find remains in Europe and North Africa. The Otzi Man was found in the Alps between Italy and Austria * He was 46 years old.
* dated back to 5,000 BC
* lived in the Neolithic times.
Archeologists study artifacts, Anthropologists study culture. Homonids are the study of humans.
Homo Habilis- human-like, short, hairy, and walk on all fours. Date back to millions of years ago Homo erectus- come after Homo Habilis, and date back from millions to 100,000 years ago. Stands up on two legs. Homo Sapiens Sapiens- show up 100,000 years ago.
* Neanderthrals had a large skull, hairy, smaller brain, and crude weapons. They were a branch(?) of Homo Sapiens Sapiens and existed at the same time as the Cro-Magnons. * Cro-Magnons had better tools, taller, had larger groups, and did pottery. Their skulls were also closer to how ours are now. Paleolithic
* small population
* 100,000 BC
* Hunterse and gatherers
* had language
* already had fire
* cave paintings