Organelles

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Cell Processes and Body Organisation

Nucleus

The nucleus is the largest, most prominent organelle, usually spherical and roughly about 10mm in diameter. Every eukaryote cell, with the exception of red blood cells due to their very specific function, has a nucleus. The nucleus' function is to store DNA, it does so in two ways: One is tightly packed and this is called heterochromatin, this isn't read. And the other is loosely packed, named euchromatin. Euchromatin is the actively read material that is produced into proteins. Tiny individual segments of the DNA, called Genes (genetic infromation) contain the specific information that is needed to make individual proteins, this includes the enzymes that controls the cell's activities, which is another primary job for the nucleus. DNA is split into 4 bases: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. And the sequence has to be specific. Three processes occur here, replication, transcription and translation. “The nucleus is encircled by an Nuclear Envelope, this is formed of two membranes that are separated by a gap of approximately 20nm to 40nm this is in place to keep DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) confined in a definite area.” (Boyle, Senior, 2002: 10)

Golgi Apparatus

This organelle is formed of a stack of flat membrane-bound sacks and a tightly packed group of flattened vesicles. Vesicles are a small spherical organelle, bounded by a single membrane, used to store and transport material around the cell. (Boyle, Senior, 2002: 14) The Golgi is a continuously moving structure due to vesicles coming and going from one side to the other and they are approxiamtely 7mm in size. The process goes like this: The vesicles fuse with the Forming Face (side closest to nucleus) and then leaves from the Maturing face (side closest to cell membrane) The golgi body is used in the sythesis /modification of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, for example, the Golgi apparatus adds a mannose-6-phosphate label to proteins...
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