Age| Feeding skills| Nutrition|
4-6 months| Fading root/bite reflex| the CHILD experience new tastes. Give rice cereal with iron [remember IDA]| 6-7 months| Sits with minimal support. Holds bottle alone| Add fruits and vegetables| 8-9 months| Improved pincer grasp, puts random things in their mouth| Add protein foods and finger foods[stage wherein a lot of contamination could actually be going on]| 10-12 months| pulls to stand, reaches for food| Add soft table food.Allow to self-feed.| 12-18 months| increased independence| Stop bottle feeding, practice eating from a spoon, drinking from a glass/cup| 18 months to 2 yrs| GROWTH GAP -Growth slows. Less interest in eating| important role of mother or caregiver to encourage self-feeding with utensils| 2-3 years| Intake varies| Mother/caregiver to exert control on feeding. [picky with the food. ex want chocolate, junk foods]| PRE-SCHOOL (1 TO 6 YEARS)
Growth is one of the anthropometric measurement to see the nutritional development of the child.
1 to 2 years old: on average, grows 12 cm, gains 3.5 kg.
4 years old:rate of growth slows down
* 6-8 cm/year
* 2-4 kg/year
* nutritional intervention for possible malnutrition and other nut deficiencies when the child is growing around 4 cm or less. 6 years old:Brain growth triples
* Head circumference
* physical index of both past nutrition and brain development * most sensitive anthropometric measurement of
prolonged undernutrition(4 mos onward) during childhood and associated intellectual impairment * a Growth chart is available
Developing Healthy Habits
1) Offer a variety of healthy foods and snacks.
2) Encourage fruit and vegetable intake.
3) No junk food snacking.
4) Limit intake of juices ( 4 oz per day).
5) Increase intake of water (no soda).
6) Encourage low fat dairy products (3-4 servings/ day).
7) Make fun physical activity a habit.
8) Limit TV to no more than 1 to 2 hours per day.
9) Track growth and development carefully.
10) Be a good role model.
Notes: The problem with babies is that caregivers would give sweets to them which is wrong. At an early age, they should be given fruits and vegetables so they will grow with taste preferences towards this. If a child is obese at younger age, there is a tendency to carry it to adulthood. consequence: medical problems. Tracking of growth and development should be continuous even baby is apparently healthy. Children sometimes do not survive until 5y/o because of the malnutrition problems.
Nutritional Concerns in Adults and Adolescents
1) Malnutrition and poverty.
2) Growth spurt-onset of menses for girls-changes in body size/image. 3) Food fads, vitamins, athletes.
4) Eating disorders: anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
5) Overweight and obesity.
6) Hyperlipidemia and heart disease.
7) Bone mineralization and osteoporosis
Notes: Food fads like Splenda(Sucralose) sugars (also in milk teas). All sugars are not really good especially when you have diabetic history. Brown sugar has higher sucrose index than white sugar. Protein shakes: adolescent athletes tend to overdrink protein which when metabolized produces different byproducts that is also not good in excess. Osteoporosis results from reduced calcium absorption bec Filipinos don’t usually drink milk but coffee instead. Calcium supplementation will be lower.
POVERTY AND MALNUTRITION
* Iron-Deficiency Anemia (IDA) – most common childhood nutritional problem worldwide. Iti s common in lower socioeconomic status communities where food is a problem. Also, by parasitic worms. * Low vitamin C intake.
* Exposure to lead.
* Very important cause of malnutrition
* Lead Poisoning
is more harmful in children as it affects developing nerves and brains so they are more prone to develop toxicity.